Floriculture – a booming sector for women entrepreneurs in rural India Abstract
India is gifted with diverse agro-climatic conditions like good quality soils, suitable climate, abundant water supply, low labour cost, which form effective support system to Floriculture . India has an added advantage that it has good export relations with the countries like Japan ,USA, and other European countries . Commercial floriculture is becoming important from the export angle. The liberalization of industrial and trade policies paved the way for development of export oriented production of cut flowers. As traditional flower cultivation is apart of Indian agriculture it is very near to the rural India .With growing demand of flowers like tulips ,gerberas, gladiolus and other bouquet flowers this sector is booming and considered as one of the best employment generators in the rural India. Though it is still in the nascent stage it is moulding itself to suit the international standards. Exports of floriculture products was valued at Rs. 817 million. This paper focuses emerging trends in floriculture it also made attempt to bring out the supportive mechanism and opportunities that can be harnessed make rural women as employers. Introduction:
The total area under flower crops was estimated around 34,000 hectares, which included 24,000 hectares under traditional flowers such as marigold, jasmine, aster, rose, chrysanthemum, tuberose and 10,000 hectares under modern flowers like cornation, rose, gerbera, gladiolous, anthurium. Returns from floricultural products were estimated at Rs.205 Crores, which included Rs.105 Crores from traditional and Rs. 100 Crores from modern flowers. The total business of floriculture products in India in 2005 was Rs.8174 Lakhs while it increased to Rs.10117 Lakhs by April, in 2006. There were more than 300 export-oriented units in India. More than 50% of the floriculture units are based in South zone mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. Also West Bengal, Maharashtra, Rajasthan have large areas under floriculture. The domestic flower production goes on increasing annually. Growth drivers for floriculture in India :
• Scientific methods of flower cultivation
• Favourable agro-climatic conditions
• Social and religious events
• International events and associations
• Growing demand from the youth population
India's ecosystem and richness
Situated at the tri-junction of Afro-tropical, Indo Malayan and Paleo Arctic realms with rich variety of characteristics derived from this assemblage, India is endowed with unique biodiversity. It is one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world and harbuors in excess of recorded 47,000 flowering and non flowering plant species (12% of recorded world's flora) and 81,000 animal species. With only 2.4 per cent of the world's land area, it holds 7-8 per cent of the global biodiversity on an overall basis.
About 4,900 species of flowering plants of the recorded flora exist in the country. These are distributed over 141 genera belonging to 47 families. These are concentrated in the floristically rich areas of North-Eastern India, the Western Ghats, North- Western Himalayas and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas are reported to have 1,600 and 3,500 endemic species of flowering plants respectively. These areas constitute 2 of the 18 hot spots identified in the world.
Certain areas of India have great potential for floriculture because of : • Sufficient winter and summer sunshine
• high temperature & good soil quality
• good water quality
• different climatic zones for different type of products • low labor and investment costs
• Technical collaborations with foreign companies have been approved for India, in order to increase total share in the floriculture world trade. The current market trends:...
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