Define Biotechnology and Write an Essay on the Current Status of Plant Biotechnology in the 21st Century by Focusing Mainly on Genetic Engineering

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Define biotechnology and write an essay on the current status of plant biotechnology in the 21st century by focusing mainly on genetic engineering

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Home > Life Sciences > Genetics & Molecular Biology > Humboldt Fellow and Science

Recent advances in plant biotechnology: Applications in Agriculture.

By Ashwani Kumar | August 21st 2009 11:29 AM | Print | E-mail | Track Comments

Humboldt Fellow and Science

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About Ashwani
Professor Emeritus ,Former Head of the Department of Botany, and Director Life Sciences, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. 302004, India At present... View Ashwani 's Profile
Ashwani Kumar

Recent advances in plant biotechnology: Applications in Agriculture.

Ashwani Kumar

Professor of Botany,

Department of Botany and P G School of Biotechnology

University of Rajasthan

Jaipur 302004.

msku4@hotmail.com Tel 0141 2711654 ( Off) 0141 2654100 ( Res) Mob (0) 9414057484

Abstract:

Biotechnology is an area of production and research in which biological systems and biological principles are employed to solve technological problems. In this sense it becomes all inclusive. And during the last decade the advancements in biology have led to the development newer areas like , cellular engineering, biochips and biomaterial science, stem cells, nanobiotechnology etc. Biotechnology is a vast subject and covers Gene and genome analysis: analysis of genes and gene networks showing the potential for industrial application; gene expression studies; biotech plant breeding, e.g. marker assisted breeding. Transgenic technologies: Production and analysis of transgenic crops; gene insertion studies; gene silencing; factors affecting gene expression; post-translational analysis; molecular farming; field trial analysis; commercialisation of modified crops; safety and regulatory affairs Functional genomics: bioinformatics; gene function studies for applied uses Comparative genomics: applications to crop species; use of current crop databases Physiological studies: pathways relevant to an application; secondary metabolites; manipulations of physiology for stress resistance – abiotic and biotic stress resistance including salinity and drought stress. Development of salt resistance plant using plant biotechnology. Host pathogen interaction and role of plant biotechnology for developing resistant corps Developmental studies: developmental mechanisms leading to a further understanding of an industrial use of plants. Plant tissue culture and its role in plant biotechnology.

Introduction:

Scientists have been improving plants by changing their genetic makeup since the late 1800s. Typically, this has been accomplished through crossbreeding and hybridization, in which two related plants are cross-fertilized and the resulting offspring have characteristics of both parent plants. In the breeding process, however, many undesirable traits often can appear in addition to the desirable ones. Some of those undesirable traits can be eliminated through additional breeding, which is time consuming. Breeders can...
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