Evolution of Public Administratpon

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Contents
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A DISCIPLINE AND ITS PRESENT STATUS:2
Historical Evolution:6
PARADIGMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:9
Evolution of Public Administration15
Period I (1887 – 1926) Public Administration Dichotomy :15
Period II (1927 - 1937) Principles of Administration :16
Period III (1938 – 1947) Era of Challenge :17
Period IV (1948 - 1970) Public Administration As Management:17
Organizational development:19
Period V(1971 - Continuing :Public administration as publicAdministration: 1971-?20
The New Public Administration21
The New Public Management (NPM)23
HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION25

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A DISCIPLINE AND ITS PRESENT STATUS:  
Public administration is as old as society and state themselves. It evolved as the agency of state which runs the administration of the country. However, conscious theorizing about it is, perhaps, less than a century old. According to Woodrow Wilson the late evolution of public administration was due to the fact that the Governments had passed through three Stages-the period of absolute rulers; the period of struggle for constitutionalism and popular control; and the period when on winning political battles, people started thinking about freedom and perfect machinery for democratic administration. The first systematic writer on public administration was the American president Woodrow Wilson whose article entitled “The study of public administration” in the political science quarterly in 1887 set the ball rolling for the study of public administration as a separate discipline. In 1900 Frank Goodnow in his influential work ‘Politics and Administration’, put forth the thesis that the fields of politics and administration were separate areas of public life and hence the two must be separate and public administration must study only the field of administration and the study of politics to political science which resulted in the development of permanent civil Service free from political influence. Many later writers have attempted to reduce the scope of public administration in an attempt to provide focus to the study of modalities of policy implementation rather than policy formation. ” Introduction to the study of public administration “, by L.D White published in 1926 focused on the study of various principles of public administration and promoted further development public administration in the U.S. A. White has defined public administration as consisting of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy. The emphasis here is on the activities of the executive branch of the government and the classic work L.D. White had the effect of directing the study of public administration towards the executive branch. Other prominent scholars like Luther Gullick and Herbert Simon also had the same opinion. By 1939 public administration had made great strides in its development in to a science and in that year the American society for public administration was formed with its quarterly journal, the Public Administration Review. The American society of Public administration provided a forum for the scholars and practitioners to meet together and exchange views which helped in the spread of theories, ideas and led to the development of science of public administration. This development in the U.S.A was also aided by some management scholars who developed the scientific management movement in the country. The ‘father’ of the scientific Management Movement in the U.S.A was F. W. Taylor. The Human Relations school of Elton mayo (to which school Herbert Simon belonged) contributed a human dimension to public administration which emphasized on the individual and his behavior in organizations. This development turned public administration from purely a mechanical study of the process of policy implementation as projected by Willoughby in to a human...
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