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AP Essay Review
17th Century Affairs
1. How did the disintegration of the medieval church and the coming of the Reformation contribute to the development of nation-states in Western Europe between 1450 and 1648? a. Thesis: Rise of absolutism came at the expense of the medieval church, absolutism laid the foundation for the modern-nation state.

Supporting Info: (main body)

1. German princes: Luther’s Reformation = more power for princes. They have greater control of political affairs and national This lays foundation for nation-state as monarch doesn’t have to share power with church.- finances - bureaucracy Before Reformation the church had greater role in a state’s affairs. This changes after Luther.- army - legal system 2. English Reformation: Henry VIII had greater political control over England after the Act of Supremacy in 1534. The monarch was now the head of the English church. This lays the foundation of the nation-state as one national gov’t became more in charge of national affairs. After Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries, the monarchy had even greater control of English land. This was the biggest land transfer in Eng. history. 3. French concordant of Bologna: In the early 1500’s the French monarchy now had greater control of the French Catholics church. The monarchy could now choose the church leaders who would become the top advisors to the crown. This is one step towards absolutism in France and opens the door to the reforms of Richelieu and Louis XIV. Outside Info:

Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin were important in the church and were top advisors to the crown.

2. By 1700 it had become evident that W. Europe and E. Europe were moving in opposite directions in terms of their basic social structures. Discuss. a. Thesis: W. Eur. society became more modern/E. Eur. society remained traditional

Supporting Info: (main body)

1. Modern W. Eur. Econ: W. Eur. society became more modern as a greater portion of the population was wealthy, educated and involved in political affairs. In the Dutch Republic and England the economy was more modern focusing on trade and industry. Wealthy people who were not aristocrats were more political active in Parliament and being more influential during and after the Eng. Civil War. 2. Rise of the M.C.: This new class was the middle class. Their interests were protected in Parliament and the Dutch Republic. Wealthy merchants could vote and run for parliament and have a voice in the Dutch Republic. In France, wealthy merchants wanted a greater political voice and were pushing for restructuring of the medieval social structure where they were stuck in the 3rd Estate which didn’t have much power. 3. Eastern Europe Traditional Society: E. Eur. remained agricultural where the nobles who all the power. There was no developed of a modern economy and the resulting middle class. In the 1500-1600’s there were no strong E. Eur. monarchs to develop a national economic policy.

Outside Info: To this day E. Eur. is more backward and not as advanced as W. Eur. where the economy is advanced and very modern. This was made worse by E. Eur. being under the control of the Soviet Union which retarded E. Eur. development even more.

3. In the 17th century England and the Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies while Spain did not. Why did the economies develop so differently in England and the Netherlands on the one hand and in Spain on the other? a. Thesis: English/Dutch developed modern mercantilist economy while the Spanish economy was dependent on the silver and gold from the New World.

Supporting Info: (main body)

1. Mercantilist Economy: Mercantilism was a gov’t regulated economy that maximized exports and minimized imports in an effort to increase gold reserves. Govt’s would establish royal charters to companies that would export products. If not enough candles were produced, the gov’t would establish a charter for...
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