Ch16 Cornell Notes Apwh

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Questions/ Vocab, etc. | Notes|
Early Reform Papacy: the central administration of Roman Catholic Church (Pope)Indulgence: The forgiveness of punishment due for past sins, granted by Catholic Church authorities as reward for a pious act.Martin Luther Protestant Reformation: religious reform movement within Latin christian church beginning 1519The Reformation SpreadsThe Counter Reformation and the Politics of RegionCatholic Revolution: religious reform movement within Latin Christian church, in response to protestant ReformationReligion and the Ambitions of Kings Local Religion, Traditional Culture, and Witch-Hunts Political InnovationsHoly Roman Empire of the German heartland- loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princesEngland Civil War- a conflict over royal versus parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I’s arrest of his parliamentary critics ending with his executionVersailles- the huge palace built by French king Louis XVI south of Pariswarfare was almost constant in early modern EuropeEngland merged with Scotland to become Great Britainin order to pay for the costly wars, European countries had to come up with new money plans, such as taxationin a series of wars, England used its naval might to break Dutch dominance in overseas trade and extended its own colonial empire| Culture and Ideas * Papacy gained stature (suffered from corruption) - popes competed for rule & had great power over ppl * 54 church a built in Rome - to show Pope power/support it * Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome - glorified God (by church) - displayed renaissance art - construction was richly made * Pope Leo X designed Saint Peter's Basilica - good artistic taste - had no scandals in his life - spiritual leader - promoted indulgences ($$$)- Young professor of sacred Scripture * Had forsaken money & marriage for monastic life - wanted prayer, self denial, study * He believed that "Salvation resulted from religious faith, not from doing things" * Objected to churches needed money from ppl - wrote to pope to make change * Papacy tried to silence him but he began Protestant Reformation movement - salvation = Jesus Christ - faith based on word of god * Caused call for authentic christian practices * John Calvin agreed with Luther but denied human faith alone could give salvation * Started: * - Calvinists: ppl who agreed with him * Ppl questioned their actual belied * Catholic Church undertook reforms - Bishops took over - maintained theological seminary trained priests - gained converts thru overseas missions * Wars of religion continued in western Europe until 1648 * King Phillip used inquisition to enforce religious orthodoxy * King Henry - against Lutherism - disbanded monasteries - seized converts * King James I reminded Puritans of tradition role religion in support - no bishop, no king * Protestant & Catholic weak in small town (influences) * Towns combined rituals and beliefs of local folk tradition * Protestant & catholic ppl competed - tried to spread cultural heritage * They both practiced witch-huntsWitch-Hunt: The pursuit of people suspected of witch-craft in northern EuropeThe World of Magic and Spirits * Two distinct traditions blended 1 Folklore (magic) 2 Biblical teachings (Christianity & Jewish) * They mixed easily and soon became one * Ppl blamed spirits for crop & domestication failure * Hebrew Bible (Important during time)The Witch-Hunts * Fear of power of witches across N. Europe * Historians believed there was secular and church separation * Devil (Enemy of God) - Reformation's focus - devil made ppl jealous - devil was source of all troubleThe scientific Revolution * Greco-Roman antiquity & Bible - most trusted guides * Careful observations & math...
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