As compared to its experience in the early Middle Ages, Europe in the High Middle Ages was a. more decentralized. c. less militaristic. b. less isolated. d. more religiously diverse. Which is the best summary of the authors’ introductory overview of the late Middle Ages? a. Political and religious institutions grew steadily stronger throughout Europe. b. Populations grew, while cultural institutions faced severe challenges. c. Political conflicts killed as much as one third of the population. d. Populations and religion faced severe challenges, while culture blossomed. Religion and society were a. among the subjects that scholars re-examined in the Late Middle Ages. b. among the subjects that were considered taboo for scholars in the Late Middle Ages. c. among the subjects in which scholars of the Late Middle Ages built on medieval thinking. d. among the subjects that scholars virtually ignored in the Late Middle Ages. The Cluny reform movement sought to a. remove the clergy from royal authority. b. strengthen the powers of the Holy Roman Emperor. c. rejoin the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches. d. abolish monasticism and promote clerical marriage. The group that benefited the most from the Investiture Controversy was a. the German regional princes. b. the monks living in Dominican monasteries. c. the German kings of the Holy Roman Empire. d. the bishops living in non-German areas of Europe. One of the most important results of the Crusades was that a. permanent Christian kingdoms were established in the Near East. b. the Black Death spread from Europe to Asia. c. trade and cultural exchanges with Asia were encouraged. d. None of these answers are correct. The...