Processing & Technology
Rodge et al., J Food Process Technol 2012, 3:2 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000136
Effect of Hydrocolloid (guar gum) Incorporation on the Quality Characteristics of Bread Rodge AB1, Sonkamble SM2, Salve RV2* and Syed Imran Hashmi3
Dept of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, College of Food Technology, M.A.U, Parbhani (MS) India Dept of Food Science and Technology, MGM, College of Food Technology, Aurangabad (MS) India 3 Dept of Food Trade and Business Management, College of Food Technology, M.A.U, Parbhani (MS) India 1 2
Abstract Effect of guar gum on the rheological properties of dough, physico-chemical properties of bread, sensory characteristics of finished product and white bread quality was studied. At all levels of incorporation, there were increases water absorption from 61.2 to 64.5%, lowered the dough development time from 6.20 to 5.60 min, increased gluten development, increased dough stability, increased break down time from 37.3 to 40.5 min, higher the mixing tolerance index from 52.2 to 54.6 BTU and increased the elasticity i.e. 72.3 to 74.6 BU of the dough. The external characteristics like color of crust, symmetry, evenness, character of crust and aroma was improved linearly with increased the concentration of guar gum and also internal characteristics like color of crumb, taste and texture was improved.
Keywords: Hydrocolloids; Guar gum; Rheology; Sensory quality; Introduction
Hydrophilic colloids are those materials which give viscous solutions or form dispersions in water. In general, this criterion of water solubility to yield increased viscosity covers the large majority of gums used in the food industry . Hydro colloidal materials have colloidal properties and are usually high molecular weight polymers. Chemically, most of them are polysaccharides and few are proteins such as gelatin and casein. In recent years, many synthetic hydrocolloid polymers have been developed. In actual practice the scientific term hydrocolloid has been used interchangeably with the shorter more common term gum. Nowadays, guar gum is standing as one of the cheapest Hydrocolloids in food processing with no harmful health hazard. The importance of hydrocolloids in food applications is due to their unique, functional properties, water binding capacity, reduction in evaporation rate, alteration in freezing rate, modification in ice crystal formation, regulation of rheological properties and participation in chemical transformations. The United State Food and Drug Administration regulate gums, classifying these compounds as either food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances. Though, these are generally required at usage levels of less than 2 per cent to achieve desired properties in food systems . Hydrocolloids have been widely used in food products to modify texture, improve moisture retention, control water mobility, and maintain overall product quality during storage. Wheat starch is basic ingredient in most foods. The gums improve granular structure and pasting behavior of starch during cooking and baking of food product where low gluten flour of soft wheat interacts with low gluten proteins . They form molecular sols or gels & exhibit colloidal characteristics in aqueous system. Gums and mucilage are generally categorized as hydrocolloids which have gain paramount importance in recent years because of their diverse and enormously increasing usage in food industries as thickening, foam and emulsion stabilizing, clarifying, binding, bulking, and suspending agents. Gums hydrocolloids are complex, viscogenic macromolecules which hydrate in cold or hot water to yield viscous or dispersion . They have attributed the change in pasting viscosity of starch molecule especially when the J Food Process Technol ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
starch dispersion heated in the presence of gums. The...