Monomer units of biological macromolecules have heads and tails. When they polymerize in a head-to-tail fashion, the resulting polymers also have heads and tails. These macromolecules are polar because they are formed by head to tail condensation of polar monomers. Making Glucose:
Green plants manufacture glucose through a process that requires light, known as photosynthesis. This process takes place in the leaf chloroplasts. Carbon dioxide and water molecules enter a sequence of chemical reactions within the chloroplasts. The end products of these reactions are glucose and oxygen gas, which is released into the air. Glucose is used by the plant, with much of it being converted into other carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. It belongs to the carbohydrate class of macronutrients.
Group| Building Block| Large Molecule| Function| To Identify, Look for . . .| Carbohydrate| Monosaccharide| Polysaccharide| Energy storage, receptors, structure of plant cell wall| Made of C,H, and O; –OH's on all carbons except one| Protein| Amino acid| Polypeptide or protein| Enzymes, structure, receptors, transport, and more| Contain N, have N-C-C backbone| Nucleic acid| Nucleotide| Polynucleotide or nucleic acid| Information storage and transfer| Contain N in rings, nucleotides made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base| Lipid *| Glycerol, fatty acids| Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids| Membrane structure, energy storage, insulation| Made of C,H, and O; lots of C-H bonds; may have some C=C bonds (unsaturated); steroids have 4 rings| *Lipids are not polymers.| | | | |
Complex carbohydrates (starch), proteins, and fats are macromolecules. Found in many things we eat. For example: Fish are a good source of protein. Complex carbohydrates (starch), proteins, and fats are macromolecules. Found in many things we eat. For example: Fish are a good...