Discrimination of Girls

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Discrimination against female children has been a topic of debate. It has been a subject of concern and sociological significance. This subject raises the cultural aspects about the role of a female child in society, what her human rights are as a human being and a number of sensitive issues.This issue is important because there is nearly universal consensus on the need for gender equality.[1] Gender based discrimination against female children is pervasive across the world. It is seen in all the strata of society and manifests in various forms.[2] As per the literature, female child has been treated inferior to male child and this is deeply engraved in the mind of the female child. Some argue that due to this inferior treatment the females fail to understand their rights. This is more predominant in India as well as other lesser developed countries. Sex selection of the before birth and neglect of the female child after birth, in childhood and, during the [teenage] years has outnumbered males to females in India and also in countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh and South Korea.[2] There are 1029 women per 1000 men in North America [3] and 1076 women per 100 men in Europe[4] but there are only 927 women per 1000 men in India.[5] These numbers tell us quite a harsh story about neglect and mistreatment of the female child in India. Women have a biological advantage over men for longetivity and survival, however, in spite of this there are more men than women.[1][2][6] The figures above support that gender discrimination of female child is a basic facility area. Though the demographic characteristics do not show much or in some cases , anti-female bias, there is always a woman who receives a small piece of the pie. There are two main inequalities as pointed out by Amartya Sen, the educational inequality and health inequality, these are the indicators of a woman’s status of welfare. In India irrespective of the caste, creed, religion and social status, the overall status of a women is lower than men and therefore a male child is preferred over a female child. A male child is considered a blessing and his birth is celebrated as opposed to a female child where her birth is not celebrated and is considered more of a burden.[1] Therefore, [education] and health care of the female child in India is an important social indicator to measure equality between men and women. According to the 2001 Indian census, overall male-female ratio was 927 females per 1000 males. However, the 2011 Indian census shows that there are 914 females per 1000 males. During the last [decade] the number female children to male children in the youngest age group fell from 945 per 1000 males to 927 per 1000 males.[7] As per the data available there seems to be gender disparity depending on the location, as the Northern states(particularly Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh) seem to be more biased then the Southern states. The sharpest decline for the age group of zero to six years is observed in the Northern States particularly in Punjab (793 per 1000 females) and Haryana (820 per 1000 females).[8] These new figures point out that the use of new technology contributes to the gender composition. Furthermore, the availability of and access to new technologies provides new ways for parent to achieve such goals of sex determination before birth.[2] Due to the widespread use of this technology the Indian Government banned the sex determination before birth.[2] In spite of these bans imposed by the Government, the law is not widely followed. A social development report presented in 2010 to the World Bank and UNDP, found that the time a female child and a male child spends on various activities is similar, with the exception of domestic work and social/resting time; a female child spends nearly three forth of an hour more on domestic work than a male child and therefore lesser hours of social activity/resting then boys.[9] Despite progress in advancing gender equity...
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