CJ Study Guide
Management: the process of combining resources to accomplish organizational goals. Law enforcement management is a process of deciding goals and objectives, adopting a work plan to accomplish them, obtaining and wisely using resources and making decisions that result in a high level of performance and productivity.
Difference in Authority, Responsibility, and Delegation: Authority, law, and delegation are key factors in any organization. Authority is the power to enforce laws, exact obedience, and command. It is the legal right to get things done through others by influencing behavior. Responsibility means being answerable, liable, or accountable. Thus managers have the authority to give commands, and subordinates have the responsibility of carrying out commands. This authority-responsibility structure is in keeping with the paramilitary organization that traditional police management is modeled after. Delegation, or transferring authority, is a necessary and often difficult aspect of management because it requires placing trust in others to do the job as well as, or better than, the manager would do it.
Seagull Management: manager hears something’s wrong, flies in, makes a lot of noise, craps on everybody and flies away.
Characteristics of Effective Managers: Successful managers have: clear goals, a commitment to excellence, feedback, and support. In addition to these basic skills and tools, effective managers usually possess characteristics that help them succeed.
Management Style Theories:
“Theory X/Theory Y” – Douglas McGregor: Mangers act toward subordinates in relation to the views they have of them. Theory X views employees as lazy and motivated by pay. Theory Y views employees as committed and motivated by growth and development. The humanistic approach reflected in Theory Y is more effective in today’s work world.
“Four System Approach” – Rensis Likert: System 1) is the traditional, dictatorial approach to managing people. This system generally exploits employees, and uses coercion and a few economic rewards. Communication flows downward from the top, and this is little to no feedback. System 2) is similar to system 1, except that economic rewards replace coercion. Some information on organizational development is permitted but not in opposition to management’s control. System 3) is more liberal, uses employee initiative and gives employees more responsibility. System 4) is participative management (the opposite of system 1). Final decisions are made by management but only after employees have added their input. Communication flows through the organization, and there is much feedback. Also includes team management, which is widely used today. “Mature Employee Theory” – Chris Argyris: Organizations and individuals exist for a purpose. Both are interdependent: organization provides jobs, and people perform them.
“Managerial/Leaderships Grid Theory” – Mouton and Blake: 1) Authority Compliance Management Style – the early autocratic authoritarian approach. Concern is for manager authority, status, and operation of the organization. 2) Country Club Management- managers are overly concerned with keeping employees happy at the expense of reasonable productivity. Concern for employees is utmost; concern for productivity is limited. 3) Impoverished Management – permits workers to do just enough to get by. Little real concern exists for employees or management. Little is expected and little is given. The prevailing attitude: ignore problems and they will go away. 4) Middle of the Road Management – the manager shows some concern for both employees and management but in a low key manner that is not productive. The manager is a fence straddler. 5) Team Management – The manager works with employees as a team, providing information, caring about their feelings and concern, assisting, advising, and coaching. Employees are committed to their jobs and organization through...
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