Defination of Values.

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INTRODUCTION

DEFINATION OF VALUES
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence if personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct and end-state of existence. When we rank an individual’s value in terms their intensity, we obtain that person’s value system. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to values such as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality. IMPORTANCE OF VALUES

Values are important to the study of organizational behavior because they lay the foundation for our understanding of people’s attitudes and motivation, because they influence our perception. They contain interpretation of right and wrong, they imply that certain behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others; as a result values cloud objectivity and nationality. CLASSIFICATIONS OF VALUES

There are two approaches to develop values typologies.
TERMINAL VALUE: Milton Rokeach created the Rokeash Value Survey (RVS).It consists of two sets of values, each containing 18 individual values items. One set called terminal values refers to desirable end-state. In short, desirable end-state of existence; that goal a person would like to achieve during his or her life time. INSTRUMENTAL VALUE : preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.

VALUES ACROSS CULTURE
There appears to be a decline in business ethics. Recent corporate scandals involving accounting manipulation, cover-ups, and conflicts of interest certainly suggest such a decline. This is not a recent phenomenon. Although the issue is debatable, a lot of people think ethical standards began to erode in the late 1970s. After all, managers consistently report that the action of their bosses is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations. Given this fact, the values of those in middle and upper management should have a significant bearing on the entire ethical climate within an organization. We described the new global village and said managers have to become capable of working with people from different cultures. Because values differ across cultures, an understanding of these differences should be helpful in explaining and predicting behavior of employees from countries. Nowadays, there are many values that people and organizations usually practices. The key values that play a pivotal role and probably effect the people and organizations are tend to subscribe is individual-collectivism, power distance and achievement-nurturing. In other word I will discuss all the above with sharing some of my experiences to make us more understand on these values. One of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations among cultures was done in the late-1970s by Geert Hofstede. He surveyed more than 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work-related values. He found that managers and employers vary on five value dimensions of national culture. They are listed and defined as follows:

HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CULTURE
Power distance:
The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. This ranges from relatively equal (low power distance) to extremely unequal (high power distance). The power distance is a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals with larger amounts of power than others. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. Power distance is importance and it considers very high values in the Asian countries including in Malaysia.

For example, New Zealand and Denmark expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right...
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