Models in Curriculum Development
Curriculum development is concerned with the drawing up of plans for teaching and learning activities in classroom situations that will bring about positive changes in the lives of the learners. It is based on the school’s mission and goals and identifies ways of translating these into a coherent and coordinated program of meaningful experiences and conditions eliciting responses that will lead to the transformation of the learners into authentic, warm and sensitive human beings (Palma, 1992). Moreover, the all-important process of curriculum development has only one function, and that is, the formation of the “Ideal Graduate.” This becomes the ultimate measure of the success or failure of the total school enterprise. It should be pointed out, however, that the conception of the “Ideal Graduate” will vary since it depends on the school’s peculiar clientele, ecology and thrusts.
To know the different models of curriculum evaluation.
Specific Objectives. After reading this module, you should be able to:
1. Know and understand what is curriculum development. 2. Identify the different models in curriculum development 3. Know and understand the steps in curriculum development. 4. Answer the questions given at the last page of this module.
1. The Michaelis Model
The Michaelis model for curriculum development has been named after the principal author of the book New Designs for Elementary Curriculum and Instruction (2nd ed., 1975), by John U. Michaelis. His co-authors were Ruth H. Grossman and Lloyd F. Scott. Although their book is oriented to the elementary level, this model for curriculum development may be adapted to the secondary and tertiary levels.
The Michaelis model includes the components generally recognized as essential to curriculum development. It is designed for use in two ways. First, it may serve as a guide to the development or revision of the curriculum. Second, the model may serve as a guide for the review and analysis of the curriculum (Aquino, 1986).
Components of the Michaelis Model:
(a) Foundations of curriculum development
There are five major sources of ideas that serve as the foundations for curriculum planning. The historical foundations are useful in identifying the problem issues, and perspective. An examination of the historical foundations of the curriculum points up threads of continuity as well as instances of rejection of precedents and illustrates the way in which the curriculum, at any point in time, is also a production that time. The philosophical foundations may be drawn upon to develop a framework of values and beliefs related to the goals, the selection and use knowledge and means and methods and other dimensions of education. The social foundations are sources of informations and societal values, changes, problems, pressures and forces that merit consideration in curriculum planning, the Psychological foundation contains ideas about child growth, development and learning on which the program may be based. The disciplinary foundations serve as sources of information about concepts, generalizations, supporting data and modes, methods, and processes of inquiry that may be used in developing the curriculum and planning instruction.
(b)Goals and objectives
Related to the analysis of the foundations of curriculum development are the major goals of education that gives direction to planning at all levels and in all areas of the curriculum, the objectives must be consistent with, but more specific than goals so that immediate direction is obtained for intuitional planning ad evaluation. The general goals should be cooperatively developed by school personnel and lay persons and be generally acceptable to the community, the objectives should be defended by school personnel with assistance from experts in areas of the curriculum,...