Essay Title: Cultural tourism festivals and events in Nigeria Name: Deborah Vincentsdaughter
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Festivals and events4
Cultural festivals in Nigeria5
Festivals and impacts6
New yam Festival (Iri ji Ohuru/iwa ji7
Tourism generally has to do a lot with social activities. A typical example is the adventure tourism which is a type of tourism that provides an opportunity for people to challenge nature and everything about it. This type of tourism provides opportunities for activities such as: Hand gliding and Para sailing which are grouped under hard adventure; while hot sports and wild life are grouped under soft adventure. The chambers dictionary has defined tourism as the events of tourists and those who make it available for them. Tourism as defined in a book says that it is the study of how good human beings can cope when they are away from their normal habitats, of the industry that meet his needs and lastly of the impacts that both he and the industry have on the host’s in such ways; sociocultural, economic and physical environments. (Jafari 1977) Getting information from another book about tourism, differences in the definitions of tourism could be traced to the following approaches; Economic, technical and holistic. 1. Economic definitions emphasizes on the business area of tourism, but if it were to be criticized by leiper(1979) that it fails to even discuss about the tourist and his motivations or limitations in travelling. 2. Technical approach to the definition of tourism aims at mainly the governments and the tourism industry organizations that want to monitor the size and other important issues about tourists markets. 3. In 1942 holistic type defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they don’t lead to permanent residence are not connected to any earning activity.
Cultural tourism is a part of tourism. This part of tourism is an activity in which a particular group of people in a definite area present their heritage or cultural assets for tourists to see and appreaciate.The UNWTO(united nations world tourism organization) produced two definitions based on two approaches which are; * The narrow definition-derived from the professional, product-based approach to defining cultural tourism. This definition includes ‘movement of persons for basically cultural motivations such as; study tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals and so many other cultural events, visits to sites, travel to study nature, folklore and pilgrimages(Richards 1996:22) * The wide definition-is based on conceptual, process-based approach. Has to do with the migration of persons because they satisfy the human need for diversity, tending to raise the cultural level of the individual and giving rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters(Richards 1996:22) Cultural tourism involves four elements according to my research and they are as follows; * Tourism
* Use of cultural heritage assets
* Consumption of experiences and products
* The tourist(cultural tourists)
According to ICOMOS (International council on monuments and sites) observed that “cultural tourism means many things to many people and herein it’s strengths and weaknesses”. This part of tourism is also known as a form of special tourism where culture plays the role of either attracting tourists or motivating people to travel (McIntosh and Goeldner 1992: Zeppel 1992; Ap 1992).
Festivals and events
In this section, festivals and events in Nigeria will be discussed fully and their impacts analysed.It will be wise to discuss what festivals are all about first before going on to...