Identify and discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the principal formal definition(s) of the industry sector central to your programme of study
This assignment will concentrate on the title: ‘Identify and discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the principal formal definition(s) of the industry sector central to your programme of study.’ It is going to start off with a definition of tourism by Herman von Schullard in 1910 which says: tourism is ‘the sum total of operations, mainly of economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region’. Afterwards it is going to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this definition by outlining the development of the term tourism with help of different definitions from different times, using the definition of a committee of statistical experts at the League of Nations in 1937, of Hunziker and Krapf in 1941, of the International Union of Official Travel Organisations (IUOTO) in 1968, of the Tourism Society of England in 1976 and from the International Conference on Leisure-Recreation-Tourism in Cardiff in 1981.
To begin with working on the exercise mentioned in the headline one should at first understand which aspects are important in a definition of tourism and where there are still problems of defining tourism. There are various criteria, such as distance travelled; how far the tourist has to travel from home to be classified as a tourist. The purpose of the trip; whether the tourist is travelling on business, to visit some friends or relatives or simply to spend his leisure time at a different destination to go sightseeing or just to relax somewhere other than his own home. And the last criterion is the length of stay; there are two types of tourists distinguished by the length of stay. Someone staying for less than a day is an excursionist and someone staying longer than a day is classified as a tourist. Tourism also normally involves expenditure at the destination, although this is not necessarily the case. ‘Someone cycling or hiking in the countryside on a camping weekend in which they carry their own food may make no economic contribution to the destination in which they travel, but can nonetheless be counted as a tourist’, as Holloway mentioned in his book ‘The Business of Tourism (2006), p4’. Overall tourism involves a change of location and therefore most of the time is a change from the daily routine, whereas locals can also be considered as tourists within their city or region if they participate in tourism activities. After discussing what has to be mentioned in a definition for tourism there are still problems and questions according this topic. For example, ‘Should shoppers travelling from, say, Bristol to Bath, a distance of twelve miles, be considered tourists?’ (Holloway, 2006, p4) And is it really the purpose and the distant that form the deciding factors? ‘And what about the growing band of people who are travelling regularly between their first and second homes, sometimes spending equal time at each?’ (Holloway, 2006, p4), or those children travelling from one parent to the other on a regular basis, are they considered tourists?
After outlining the strengths and weaknesses of tourism definitions in general, one should have a look at different definitions. As mentioned in the introduction, this assignment is going to start off with the definition by Herman von Schullard in 1910: tourism is ‘the sum total of operations, mainly of economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region’. Schullard states in this definition, that tourism mainly involves a stay at a destination, which he classifies as a country, city or region, due to economical purposes. The weaknesses in this definition are obvious. Schullard on the one hand mentioned a purpose of...
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