Creativity

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Int J Technol Des Educ (2010) 20:453–476 DOI 10.1007/s10798-009-9102-z

Methods that may stimulate creativity and their use in architectural design education ´ Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski • Giovana Bianchi • Valeria Teixeira de Paiva

Published online: 13 November 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Abstract The architectural design process is based on a creative phase where creativity is highly valued. Although the literature on creativity is rich in ways to stimulate the decision-making process, these tools are rarely formally present in the building design process. To further the discussion on creativity and design education this paper presents a study on methods that may enhance the creative process and their application in architecture courses around the world. The results of this inquiry indicate that design instructors apply methods that may stimulate creativity mostly informally, with some positive results. To explore more fully the richness of the literature on the enhancement of creativity, structured applications of methods are recommended in controlled experiments to analyze results. Keywords Creativity Á Creative design Á Design education Á Problem solving Á Methods that may stimulate creativity Á Architectural design

Introduction In recent decades universities and architecture schools in particular, have made important efforts to improve design education. The goals in new ways of teaching design are mainly concerned with enriching the pure artistic vision of architecture, through the insertion of scientific knowledge and social responsibility. Environmental comfort and the question of sustainability have increased the need for exact science and technical education. Social sciences need to instill sensitivities towards the relation of human behavior and elements of the built environment. Finally, results of studies on creativity should enrich the design process. In this paper, to further the discussion on design education a study on methods that may enhance creativity is presented. The results of an exploratory interview inquiry with design instructors, to investigate the application of such methods, are discussed. Architectural D. C. C. K. Kowaltowski (&) Á G. Bianchi Á V. T. de Paiva School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, FEC, Department of Architecture and Building, DAC, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CP 6021, Campinas, SP, Brazil e-mail: doris@fec.unicamp.br

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design is used as the main object of inquiry, since the authors professional and teaching experiences are in this field. The discussion on the creative design process and the results of the exploratory interview study presented, are seen as having a wider application in the design field. Contemporary goals in higher education and particularly design education include giving students tools to stimulate the search for creative solutions to problems, as well as a solid scientific basis for decision-making processes. To achieve such goals, the introduction of methods that may enhance creativity can be found in the discussion on curricular reforms. The authors were interested in the application of tools that may enhance creativity, after conducting a teaching experiment in a bioclimatic design-studio of the Architecture and Urban Design Course of the State University of Campinas—Unicamp, in Brazil (Kowaltowski et al. 2007). The strength of restrictions, imposed on the design solution realm, was tested in the previous study. The results showed that restrictions could enhance creativity in students, especially through the challenge of breaking the imposed barriers by adopting new and original solutions. In addition, with restrictions made clear, students were more confident in their design proposals and the design process as a whole. The starting point of the exploratory investigation, presented in this paper, was a literature review that demonstrated that the...
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