Compilation of Learning Strategies

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A COMPILATION

OF

APPROACHES, METHODS, STRATEGIES/TECHNIQUES

AND TEACHING- LEARNING MATERIALS

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Course, LNG 506

Current Trends in Teaching English

And Construction of Instructional Materials

by

ROWELA I. SALVANTE

M.A. Ed. (Language Teaching English)

March 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Sincere gratitude and warmest appreciation is hereby extended to the following people, who, in any way have contributed, inspired me and never ceased in helping until this academic endeavor is structured: To Dr. Leilah De La Llana a professor of this subject LNG 506 for his fruitful words and advice; To my classmates and friends, who have been unselfishly extending their efforts and understanding; To my beloved family who continue to inspire me to become enthusiastic in studies and also for their unwavering moral, emotional and financial support; Special and heartfelt gratitude is given to Donald Tabingo for his love, companionship and encouragement for this undertaking; And above all, to the Almighty God, who never cease in loving us and for the continued guidance and protection. To all of you gratefulness is what I want to offer for being a part in the completion of this academic endeavor.  Thank you so much.

Rowela I. Salvante

March 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOPICSPAGE

History of Language Teaching1-4
Grammar Translation Method4-10
The Direct Method10-17
Reading Method17
The Audiolingual Method18-26
The Cognitive Code Approach26
Natural Approach26-27
Community Language Learning27-36
The Silent Way36-42
Suggestopedia43-49
Total Physical Response49-55
Lexical Approach55-58
Competency-Based Language Teaching58-62
Content-Based Method62
Task-Based Instruction62-63
Neuro Linguistic Programming63-66
Multiple Intelligence67-69
Whole Language Approach69-71
The Natural Approach71-72
Communicative Approach73-74
The Communicative Language Teaching Approach74-83
Importance of Instructional Materials
in Education83-87
Instructional Aid Theory87-88
Reasons for Use of Instructional Aids89-91
The Various Roles of Instructional Materials in
in Different Modes of Teaching/Learning95-99
Types of Instructional Materials99-125
1|
History of Language Teaching

Along the years, many different teaching methods have been developed whether to face students’ needs or to match the requirements of a new administration, all of them claiming to be the best option to teach English. Many theories about the learning and teaching of languages have been proponed. These theories, normally influenced by developments in the fields of linguistics and psychology, have inspired many approaches to the teaching of second and foreign languages.

Ancient time

In the Western world back in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, foreign language learning was associated with the learning of Latin and Greek, both supposed to promote the speakers’ intellectual. At the time was very important to focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, along with rote memorization of vocabulary and translation of literary texts. Latin and Geek were not being taught for oral communication but for the sake of speakers becoming scholarly or creating an illusion of sophistication. Knowledge of Latin was needed for the study of the bible and for academic purposes like the study of medical books and legal documents.

After all speaking Latin played a subordinate role because it was a “dead Language” and because there were no authentic living people who could serve as a model for its phonetically correct pronunciation. It was not before the year 1886 that linguists like Wilhelm Vietor, Henry Sweet, and Daniel Jones

2

created the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic description of sounds in different...
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