Common Celtic and Gaulish Prepositions

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  • Topic: Sanskrit, Grammatical case, Balto-Slavic languages
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Common Celtic and Gaulish Prepositions


ad + acc.: to, towards, up to
ambi + acc.: around, about, surrounding
are + acc.: in front of, on behalf of
a + abl.: away from, off of
kanti + acc.: according to, using, for
kenā + acc.: otherwise
kon + inst.: with
dī + abl.: from
eni + loc.: in, inside
eni + acc.: into
entrā + acc.: between
eri + gen.: about, concerning
eri + acc.: near
eχs + abl: out of, from
eχtrā + acc: without, outside
īđđ + acc.: under
po + acc.: to, towards, until
oncon + dat.: near to, at
oχsos + acc.: above, over
racon + acc.: before
samalī + acc.: like, as, similar to
sepū + acc.: without
tande + acc.: under, beneath
trās + acc.: accross
trē + acc.: through
tū + dat.: to
o + acc.: under
er/or + acc.: over, on
rit + acc.: against
ēdū + loc.: in the presence of


Due to their systematical pretonic position, prepositions use to undergo phonetical reductions. Some of them are fossilized case-forms of current words: (*sekōd) > sepū > sepu; onkon > onko .

Comparative Indo-european Linguistics show that some prepositions governed the instrumental case (er v.g.), but in Labarion ablative and instrumental have in practice fused. All simplifying, we can consider as the ablative this generally governed case.

In Labarion all the prepositions govern one of two cases: either accusative or ablative-instrumental; the partial exception is in “in”, which governs the locative case along with the ablative.

ak (+ ) = along with (*ad-ghe, W. â, ac)
ad (+ acc.) = towards (*ad-; OIr. ad, W. ad > at)
ambi (+ acc.) = around, about (*•mbhi; OIr. imm, W. am)
ande (+ acc.) = under, beneath (*•ndhe, OIr. ind, W. tan
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