Important changes in the understanding and management of Human Resources have been developed in the past 10 to 15 years. Various researchers, practitioners and policymakers now acknowledge that Human Resources can be conceptualized from a functional perspective and that appropriate interventions involve the development of alternative measures to cope up. It was also noted that the establishment of a conducive working environment for learning and training have served effectively in lowering the prevalence of underachievement among employees. At present, this philosophical shift has extended to various settings, including multinational companies and organizations.
The activities involved in the HRM function are pervasive throughout the organisation. Line managers typically spend more than 50% of their time for HR activities such as hiring, evaluating, disciplining and scheduling employees. HRM department helps the organisations with all activities relating to staffing and maintaining an effective workforce. Major HRM responsibilities include work design and job analysis, training and development, recruiting, compensation, team building, performance management and appraisal, worker health and safety issues, as we as identifying or developing valid methods for selecting staff (all discussed at length in this paper)
Some companies call the HR managers as People Managers, People Enablers and the practice as people management. In the 21st century organizations, the HR manager or the people manager is no longer seen as someone who takes care of the activities described in the traditional way. In fact, most organizations have different departments dealing with Staffing, Payroll, and Retention etc. Instead, the HR manager is responsible for managing employee expectations vis-à-vis the management objectives and reconciling both to ensure employee fulfilment and realization of management objectives.
Now that we have defined HRM, we can now look at its knowledge areas as well as the individual sub-areas under them. These areas of knowledge include;
- Industrial Relations
- Organisational Behaviour
- Performance Management
These areas are discussed thoroughly discussed thus;
1.INDUSTRIAL AND LABOUR RELATIONS
Critical issues to be discussed are:
- What is industrial relations?
- contract of employment
- trade unions and employers association
- discipline and disciplinary action
- Labour and retirement.
Definitions of Industrial Relations
Industrial Relations is the designation of a whole field of relationship that exist because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment. – Dale Yoder (1972).
Industrial Relations defined as the complex of interrelations among workers, managers and government – Dunlop John (1958).
Industrial Relations refer to a set of relations arising out of the employer employee relationship in the modern industrial society.
Industrial Relations or relationship does not operate in a vacuum. As a system, there are parts or actors that work together to achieve the purpose of the entire system, industrial Relations as a system would have inputs to the system with processes through which the inputs would follow or work through to achieve a desired output.
Importance of industrial relations
Nigeria’s dream of becoming an industrialized country may not be realized without good and harmonious relationship between all the actors in industrial relations. The following are the importance of industrial relations:
- It enhances industrial peace
- It raises the morals of the employees
- It helps in devising effective strategies to move organisations forward.
- It ensures prudent use of resources
- It helps in raising organisational productivity
- It improves quality of work life in the organisation,...