- There are 5 key conceptual connections to understanding the material.
1. Primary Tradition; is primary because it took shape first and because it is more important and enduring than Secondary tradition.
2. Secondary Tradition; took shape after the formation of the primary tradition, and it is less important and enduring than the primary tradition.
3. Defining moments; refers to the period between 500 BC to 500 CE, when major civilizations developed their defining or distinguishing characteristics.
4. Creative minorities; refers to political, religious, and intellectual leaders who helped shape and define their civilizations during the defining moment in world history.
-New perspectives, new religions
-Different orientations (why?, What explains?)
*Geological and ecological
5. Resource endowments; refers to the total means within a given geographical and ecological environment of human society. In other words, it could refer to either natural resources or intellectual and institutional resources. Questions to answer and help understand
* How should one define civilization?
* How did regional empires emerge in Mesopotamia?
* What are the salient characteristics of Mesopotamia as a civilized society? * What constitutes the primary political tradition of Persian civilization? * How did Darius contribute to the formation of the primary political tradition of Persian civilization? * How did Zoroaster contribute to the formation of the primary religious tradition of Persian civilization? Defining Civilization
-A form of human culture characterized by the existence of cities, a distinct religious structure, a new political and military structure, a new social structure, and writing.
Characteristics of a Civilized Society
-Distinctive religious structure lead to the emergence of impersonal forces such as gods and heaven, and this was deemed crucial to success. -The new political structures lead to formation of armies and the emergence of an organized Bureaucracy. *Bureaucracy: general; organization of people who report in a hierarchy. Actual; refers to administration of a government chiefly through bureaus or departments staffed with nonelected or appointed officials. It refers to a type of human society characterized by the existence of and dominance by such a bureaucracy. - They created a writing system for the purpose of record keeping and communication Mesopotamia: The formation of a civilized Society, 6000-1500BC 1. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
-Runs through modern city of Bagdad
-Cities emerged off the rivers
-Lead to irrigation systems
-Made lands in region fertile because of the silt deposits
2. Sumerians & the rise of cities, 3000 BC
-Sumerians were the earliest known people
-Sumerians became dominant people in Mesopotamia
-Sumerians created the development of cities and centers of political and military authority -A dozen Sumerian cities dominated public affairs in Mesopotamia. These cities all experienced internal and external pressures that prompted them to establish states( formally government institutions that wielded authority throughout the territories). Because agriculture was so important to the welfare of urban residents, the cities became city-states. A. Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Legash
-The pressure from the cities prompted to create city-states -City-States served as basic units for Sumerian civilization. Government officials were responsible for many things: keeping peace, developing systems -Sumer divided into city-states and all the above are all city-states -Each city-state was centered on a temple dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess -Said that city-states started the use of slave labor
B. Characteristics of Cities
-Each city-state came up with its own government, but still had same culture and language
-Each city-state was an advanced city that had; specialized workers, complex institutions, record...