AP World History ch.5

Topics: Religion, Gautama Buddha, Buddhism Pages: 10 (2615 words) Published: October 22, 2013
Chapter 5 Outline

I. Opening Vignette
A. In 2004, China celebrated the 2,555th birthday of Confucius, despite Communism. 1. Buddhism and Christianity also growing rapidly in China 2. part of enduring legacy of the classical world

B. In the period around 500 b.c.e., there was a great emergence of durable cultural traditions that have shaped the world ever since.  1. China: Kong Fuzi (Confucius) and Laozi
2. India: Upanishads defined Hinduism 
a. Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism
3. Middle East: development of monotheism
a. Persia: Zoroastrianism (prophet Zarathustra)
b. Israel: Judaism (prophets such as Isaiah)
4. Greece: rational humanism (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, et al.) 5. all sought an alternative to polytheism, placating of gods through ritual and sacrifice a. quest for source of order and meaning in the universe b. guide humans to personal moral or spiritual transformation (especially development of compassion)  c. the questions they pose still trouble and inspire humankind  d. they defined their distinctive cultures

C. Why did all these traditions emerge at about the same time?  1. some historians point to major social changes
a. iron-age technology led to higher productivity and deadlier war  b. growing cities, increasing commerce 
c. emergence of new states and empires 
d. new contacts between civilizations
2. it’s a mystery why particular societies developed particular answers

II. China and the Search for Order
A. China had a state-building tradition that went back to around 2000 b.c.e. 1. idea of Mandate of Heaven was established by 1122 b.c.e.(foundation of the Zhou dynasty) 2. breakdown into the chaos of the “age of warring states” (403–221 b.c.e.) a. chaos made the quest for order urgent

B. The Legalist Answer
1. Han Feizi was a leading Legalist philosopher
2. principle: strict rules, clearly defined and strictly enforced, are the answer to disorder 3. pessimistic view of human nature; only the state can act in people’s long-term interest 4. promotion of farmers and soldiers, who performed the only essential functions in society  5. Legalism inspired the Qin dynasty reunification of China  a. the philosophy was discredited by Qin brutality C. The Confucian Answer

1. Confucius (551–479 b.c.e.) was an educated, ambitious aristocrat a. spent much of life looking for a political position to put his ideas into practice b. Confucius’s ideas had enormous impact on China and the rest of East Asia c. his teachings were collected by students as the Analects  d. elaboration and commentary on his ideas by later scholars, creating Confucianism as a body of thought 2. principle: the moral example of superiors is the answer to disorder a. society consists of unequal relationships 

b. duty of the superior member to be sincere and benevolent  c. will inspire deference and obedience from the inferior member 3. humans have capacity for improvement: education is the key a. advocated a broad liberal arts education 

b. application of liberal arts education to government problems  c. need for ritual and ceremonies
4. after Legalism was discredited, Confucianism became the official ideology of the Chinese state a. Confucianism became central part of education system in the Han dynasty 5. the family as a model for political life, with focus on filial piety a. defined role of women as being humble, serving husbands  b. woman writer Ban Zhao (45–116 c.e.): Lessons for Women 6. emphasized the great importance of history

a. ideal good society was a past golden age 
b. “superior men” had outstanding moral character and intellect; not just aristocrats...
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