1) The Shapes of Human Communities
1. In 1500, the world had all different societies, gatherers and hunters to empires, but it was different 2. Paleolithic Persistence
a) gathering and hunting societies (Paleolithic peoples) still existed throughout the world but they had changed over time b) b. had new & improved technologies and ideas, e.g., outrigger canoes, fish hooks, etc (had not adopted agriculture) c) exchanged goods over hundreds of miles and developed sophisticated sculpture and rock painting and northwest coast of North America developed very differently 3. Agricultural Village Societies
a) predominated in much of North America, in Africa south of the equator, in parts of the Amazon River basin and Southeast Asia b) their societies mostly avoided oppressive authority, class inequalities ( forested region in present-day southern Nigeria – 3 political) c) Benin: centralized state ruled by a warrior king ,EwuareP d) Igbo : dense population and trade, and rejected kingship and state building e) Yoruba, Benin, and Igbo peoples traded among themselves and beyond 4. Agricultural village societies went through change in the centuries before 1500 a) population growth, emergence of distinct peoples
b) rise of warfare as key to male prestige -creation of the Iroquois confederation c) some European colonists appreciated Iroquois values of social equality and personal freedom (even for women)agriculture,depose officeholders5. 5. Herding Peoples of the
a) Turkic warrior Timur tried to restore the Mongol Empire ca. 1400 but ended up devastating Russia, Persia, and India b) his successors kept control of the area between Persia and Afghanistan for a century c) Timur’s conquest was the last great military success of Central Asian nomads d) the steppe nomads’ homeland was swallowed up in expanding Russian and Chinese empire 6. African pastoralists -independent from empires...
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