Tourism Policy & Planning

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to Tourism Policy & Planning
What is Policy?
The Importance of defining policy
-Clarifying what policy is from different perspectives provides a means for people to understand what it is we are talking about, examining or researching  gives direction. -Provide boundaries to the subject matter.

-Provide a common platform for understanding.
-Clarify who is involved and/or responsible.
Definitions of Policy
-Thomas Dye – “whatever governments choose to do or not to do.” -Considine – “continuing work done by groups of policy actors who use available institutions to articulate and express the things they value.” -Bridgeman and David – “the vehicle through which politicians seek to make a difference.” Characteristics of Policy

1.Involves the government: involvement will vary according to the issue. 2.Is a stated intention or commitment to undertake a particular action or bring about change  Course of action that has been legitimated by government. 3.Involves hypothesising about future causes and consequences. 4.Is an action that brings about intervention or an allocation/redistribution of resources. 5.Is an organisational practice.

6.Is about choices that governments and policy collaborators make. 7.Involves mediating values and interest.
What is Planning?
-Much like policy, there is no universal agreement on how to define planning. -In its simplest form, planning is about identifying appropriate steps to achieve some predetermined goal. -Planning is:

oConcerned with the future.
oAcquiring knowledge and identifying alternatives.
oAnticipating change in uncertain conditions.
oDeveloping a strategic vision.
oChoosing the best/most appropriate course of action.
oValue-laden and political.
What is Tourism?
-Definitions of tourism are diverse and are often driven by the need to collect data. -Defining tourism from different perspectives shapes policy direction and content: oTourism as temporary leisure and recreation.

oTourism as travel decisions and behaviour.
oTourism as the sum of relationships between tourists, tourism industry, community, government and NGOs. -Dominant view of tourism is that it is an industry an network of businesses and this shapes government policy and tourism administration.

Defining tourism in a policy and planning context
-With a broader view of tourism, tourism:
oInvolves the movement of people and resources.
oIs characterised by a collection of government, businesses, activities and processes that assist people to make decisions about travel. oInvolves the production and consumption of a range of tangible and intangible resources. oOverlaps and intersects with the daily lives of local communities. oInvolves the production and consumption of tourism experiences. oProduces a range of intended and unintended consequences and effects that need to be critically examined and managed. -This shows that tourism policy and planning require attention to a number of policy areas, and not just focus on economic/industrial dimensions of tourism. Studying Tourism – Public Policy

-There are many approaches to researching/understanding tourism public policy. Examples include: oHistory of tourism organisations/legacies.oPublic administration histories oRole of stateoOrganisational culture and behaviours

oPolitical dimensions of policy makingoRole & influence of public servants/bureaucracy oPower (sources and distribution)oComparative studies at different scales oPressure groups and lobbyingoEffectiveness, efficiency, transparency oLeadership distributionoPublic interest

The Social Constructionist Approach
-Planning and policy making are dynamic, socially constructed activities that involve a wide range of agents and organisations characterised by varying degrees of interest and commitment to tourism. -There is no best way of approaching the analysis of policy that will reveal a higher order of truth. -...
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