Teams and Groups

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Teams & Groups

A Team
• A group whose members have complementary skills, are committed to a common purpose, and hold themselves mutually accountable.

Stages of Team Development
(Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation)
1. Forming 2. Storming

3. Norming

4. Performing

5. Adjourning

Feelings of...
– Excitement – Suspicion – Optimism – Fear – Anxiety – Anticipation

• • • • • Resistance Uncertainty Impatience Hostility Discomfort

• • • • Safety and security Acceptance Renewed energy Focus on the process

• Feelings of…
– Pride – Satisfaction – Excitement

1. Problem-solving team
• In the past, teams were typically composed of 5–12 employees from the same department who met for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. • Members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved. Rarely are they given the authority to unilaterally implement their suggested actions. • One of the most widely practiced applications was quality circles.

Quality Circles
• A quality circle is a voluntary group composed of workers, usually under the leadership of their supervisor (or an elected team leader), who are trained to identify, analyze and solve workrelated problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees. • When matured, true quality circles become selfmanaging, having gained the confidence of management.

2. Self-managed work teams
• Some organizations have created teams to not only make recommendations but also to implement solutions. • These groups of employees (typically 10–15 in number) perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. • This includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, collective control over the pace of work, making operating decisions, and taking action on problems. • Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. As a result supervisory roles become less important.

3. Cross-functional teams
• These are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. • IBM created a large task force in the 1960s—made up of employees from across departments in the company—to develop the highly successful System 360. • The Tata Motors team dedicated to designing the Tata Nano worked in cross-functional teams in order to manage costs and meet global standards in the designing the car. • Cross-functional teams are an effective means of allowing people from diverse areas within or even between organizations to exchange information, develop new ideas, solve problems, and coordinate complex projects.

4. Virtual teams
• The previous types of teams do their work face to face. Virtual teams use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. • They allow people to collaborate online. • Virtual teams can do all the things that other teams do. • They can include members from the same organization or link an organization’s members with employees from other organizations.

Characteristics of High-performing Work Teams
(Self Managed Teams – SMT)

A Team-Effectiveness Model

(Ch.10, Pg. 306 – 315 – Robbins 14 ed)

Self Managed Teams – SMT
• Have a small team – membership not to exceed 12. • Take care to ensure that teams comprise members with at least three types of skill : technical skills, problem – solving and decision – making skills, and interpersonal skills. • The teams have specific goals and develop commitment to realize the goals. • Have proper leadership and structure for teams....
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