CHAPTER 4 – SOCIAL PERCEPTION
How do we come to understand other people?
Our words tell only one part of the story. For this reason, most of the time we don’t satisfy with verbal communication and we try to facilitate our communication by non-verbal things.
Nonverbal communication is important part of social perception.
The way in which people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words, nonverbal cues, signs include
Facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement the use of touch and gaze.
So it is important about how we make interspersions and inferences about other people and it can be either intentional or unintentional. If it is intentional we were aware that we are using that body position etc. But most of the time it is unintentional.
So it is an important fnc in communication.
How facial expressions affect us? You can understand by looking at my face that I am happy or hungry.
The primary causes of nonverbal communication are
Expressing emotions(angry, happy, sad etc)
Conveying/expressing attitudes(I like you/I don’t like you) *
Communicating ones personality traits (I am cheerful, warm, cold…) *
Facilitating verbal communication
So nonverbal communication has a great fnc in our perception of other people and giving our personality to other people.
We can have also confusion in nonverbal communication because sometimes nonverbal and verbal communication can be conflicted. It is called “communication sarcasm” how? For example you may say someone that you like her however your facial expressions say another thing. In that case we should believe nonverbal.
Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions.
Facial expressions of emotions
Human face is full off expressions.
Charles Darwin’s book; the expressions of the emotions in man and animals(1872)
First and most important contribution of Darwins theory is that emotions expressed by the face are universal. Because they have a significance of the evolution of the human mind.
All humans encode/express these emotions in the same way.
All human decode or interpret them with equal accuracy.
Facial expressions are not culture specific. They are species specific.
We all humans have the same facial expressions however the way to express them intentionally is depend on culture.
Darwin argues that such facial expressions are evolutionary significance (necessary for survive) every specifies try to be the fittest in the environment.
We share many genes with many animals.
(for example eski zamanlarda biri bir plant tatmıs yüzünde kötü bir ifade olmus bunu gören digerleri o planti hic tatmamıs and it helps their survival,They pass this knowledge to other generations.
For this reason facial expressions are universal (at least 6 of them).They are cross cultural and part of being human.
6 major emotional expressions
Why it helps us to survive? Because they help us to predict the other person intention and intention leads behavior.(mesela birini sinirli görüyorsun him bu sinirli diyorsun ona gore kacıyorsun ya da kavga ediyorsun kavga edip etmemek culture a baglı)
Also it shapes our thoughts and expectations about that people.
People don’t pay attention all facial expressions equally. Most important one is anger and fear. Why anger and fear? Because it helps us to survive. They are assigning of a danger.
There are some other emotions; anxiety(endise),contempt(nefret),shame,pride,embarrassment(mehcubiyet)
Do other animals have facials expressions? We don’t know it we cannot decode it.
However, sometimes decoding is inaccurate for three reasons. 1)
A situation called affect blend: A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers different emotions....
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