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CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT (PYC2602) QUESTIONS FROM THE STUDY GUIDE Question 2 Which statement is correct with regard to critical periods? (1) Critical periods occur mainly during prenatal development in the physical domain when environmental influences have the greatest impact. (2) A critical period is the specific time when the physical and language development of children and adolescents show the greatest changes. (3) Critical periods are the specific times when the development of certain characteristics is very sensitive to the interaction between physical and environmental influences. Feedback on question 2 The correct answer is alternative 3. Here it is important to keep the interactive nature of physical development and environmental influences in mind. Read the examples in your prescribed book (p. 18). After studying the discussion of critical or sensitive periods and plasticity, you will realise that the statement in alternative 1 is not correct because critical periods also occur after birth in the physical domain. Alternative 2 is also incorrect because recent research has shown that language development can occur even after the parts of the brain which are associated with language processing have been damaged. Question 2 Complete the following two sentences: (a) Piaget defined cognitive development as ...................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (b) Piaget studied children by means of the .......................... method. This method is a combination of ............................... and .................................... Feedback on question 2 The sentences should be completed as follows: (a) Piaget defined cognitive development as ,,the product of children’s efforts to understand and act on their world’’ (Papalia et al., 2008, p. 33). (b) Piaget studied children by means of the clinical method. This method is a combination of observation and flexible questioning.

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Question 3 According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which of the following are characteristic of a scheme? A scheme is ... (a) a system of knowledge that develops as a result of interaction with the environment. (b) a cognitive structure in which images of reality are incorporated. (c) an organised pattern of behaviour that a person uses to think about or act in a situation. (d) a mental representation of a behavioural pattern. The correct answer is: (1) (a) & (c) (2) (b) & (d) (3) All of the above Feedback on question 3 The correct answer is alternative (3). All the statements are correct because a scheme is a “system of knowledge’’ (a), a “cognitive structure’’ (b) and a “mental representation of organised patterns of behaviour’’ (c and d). By interacting with the environment, children acquire more and more information and knowledge which are organised in structures called schemes. Study the discussion in your prescribed book on page 34. Question 4 A little girl is visiting the zoo with her father. She knows a horse and a cow, but not a kudu. Seeing a kudu for the first time, she says to her father: “Look, Daddy”, there is a cow.’’ According to Piaget’s theory this is an example of ... (1) organisation (2) assimilation (3) accommodation Question 5 A little boy from Soweto is visiting his grandparents who live in a rural area in Lesotho. He knows dogs, cats and cows. Seeing a Basuto pony for the first time, he tells his grandfather that it is a big dog. After his grandfather has corrected him and explained to him that it is a certain kind of horse, he calls his sister, shows her the pony and explains to her that it is a Basuto pony. According to Piaget’s theory this is an example of ... (a) organisation (b) assimilation (c) accommodation (d) equilibration

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The correct answer is: (1) (b) & (c) (2) (a), (b) & (c) (3) All of the above Feedback on questions 4 and 5 The correct answer...
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