Unit 2 Assignment
A child develops through its whole life. They can develop; physically, linguistically, intellectually, socially and behaviourally. “Physical development is the way in which the body increases in skill and becomes more complex in its performance” [Meggitt, 2000, Page 2]. Twenty five days after conception; the body of the chid has developed immensely from the small fertilised egg. Up to birth the foetus mainly develops physically however once the child is born the child then begins the long process of development. Not only do the gross motor skills and the fine motor skills develop on the baby, but the sensory development also widens on the child.
Birth to 12 months
Motor control develops from the head, moves down through the arms and the trunk and then to the legs and feet, according to an item on early development on the online magazine Parenting. Initial movements are reflexive in nature, such as turning the head to the side when the cheek is stroked, which aids in feeding. As the initial survival reflexes fade, motor skills are related to the growing ability to observe and interact with the environment. At 3 months of age, the infant progresses to lifting the head and chest up when lying in its belly and may press up with its arms. A 3-month-old kicks its legs when lying on the belly or back, and bats at and briefly grasps toys. The World Health Organisation 1996 indicates that between 3 and 4 months, he begins rolling with belly to back first, and back to belly closer to 6 months. The following average ages of motor milestone achievement come from a 1996 study by the World Health Organisation. The average age at which infants sat without support was 6 months. The average age for standing with support was 7.6 months. Infants in the study crawled on hands and knees at 8.5 months. Walking with assistance occurred at 9 months. The average age of an infant who achieved standing alone was 11 months. In regards to communication a newborn infant will cry to indicate need. They will make brief eye-contact and can often respond to high-pitch tones by moving their limbs. A month after birth the baby changes from crying to cooing and gurgling to express need. They will cry in more expressive ways to experiment and learn how to make different noises. This is the basis in which the child will learn to speak and communicate more effectively. By the age of 3 months the child can change their tone and intensity to express a more important need such as feeding or pain. They can also become more conversational in which this is the point where the child will learn turn-taking and from this will be able to communicate at an older age with their parents or carers more effectively. When the child is 6 months old they can understand simple words such as ‘bye-bye’. They can also make gestures to support speech such as raising their arms to be picked up. At this age they begin to progress to babbling using monosyllables and later combining these to begin forming their first words. By their first birthday the child will be able to understand the command ‘no’ and will soon imitate noises made by the environment around them and in particular the noises made by their careers. The child will also be able to point to support their language such as ‘mummy’ whilst pointing to their mum. They will also be able to say 2-6 simple words by combining their monosyllables. The child will also experiment with babbling to make up new words with no meaning.
12 months-23 months
A child can walk unsupported across a room with stopping or changing direction between 13 and 15 months. Around 18 months, kicking and throwing balls, running, climbing stairs with assistance, and propelling scoot toys join the toddler's set of mobility and play skills. Between the ages of 12-23 months the child will be able to name simple parts of their body such as head and hands, they will also be able to identify pictures such as dog, cat and car. At...
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