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Botany Lab

Introduction to Microscope

Circa 1000 AD. = the first vision aid was invented (inventor unknown) called a reading stone. Circa 1284= Italian, Salvino D’ Armante is credited inventing the first bearable eye glass. 1590= two dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and Hans Janssen experimented with multiple lenses. 1665= English Physicist, Robert Hooke looked at a silver of cork through a microscope lens and noticed some “pores” or “cells”. 1674= Anton Van Leeuwenhoek built a simple microscope with only one lens to examine blood, yeast, insects, and many other tiny objects. 18th Century= technical innovations improved microscope leading to microscopy becoming popular among scientists. 1830= Jospeh Jackson Lister reduces spherical aberration of the chromatic effect. 1931= Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron microscope for which he won the Nobel prize in physics in 1986. 4 kinds of microscope

Compound Microscope
= is a microscope that uses multiple lenses to collect light from the sample and then a separate set of lenses to focus the light into the eye or camera. Dissecting Microscope (stereo or stereoscopic)

= is an optical microscope variant designed for low magnification observation of a sample using incident light illumination rather than transillumination. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
= is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. (illumination) Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
= is a microscopy technique whereby a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through. Parts of the Microscope
Ocular lens= is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes. Stage= the flat platform where you place your slide. Stage clips hold the slides in place. Arm= supports the tube and connects it to the base.

Coarse adjustment knobs= large round knob on the side of the microscope used for focusing the specimen; it may move either ths stage or the upper part of the microscope. Fine Adjustment knobs= small, round knob on the side of the microscope used to fine-tune the focus of your specimen after using the coarse adjustment knob. Base= the bottom of the microscope used for support.

Body tube= the long tube that holds the eyepiece and connects it to the objectives. Revolving nosepiece/turret= a part that holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power. Objective Lens= (low,medium,high,oil immersion) the microscope may have 2,3 or more objectives attached to the nosepiece; they vary in length (the shortest is the lowest power of magnification; the longest is the highest power of magnification. 40=HPO

100= OIO
10= LPO
Stage clips= shiny, clips on top of the stage which hold the slide in place. Diaphragm= controls the amount of light going through the aperture. Mirror or Light= source of light usually found near the base of the microscope; the light source makes the specimen easier to see. Microscope= (ancient greek: mikros; small and skopein“to look” or “see”) is an instrument used to see objects Illuminator= a steady light source (110 volts) used in place of a mirror, it is used to reflect light from an external light source up through the bottom of the stage. that are too small for the naked eye.

Cell= basic unit of life.
Cell theory
*Matthias Scheleiden= plants => cell
*Theodor Schwann= animals => cell
*Rudolf Virchow= all cells came from a pre-existing cell
Unicellular= means only one cell
Multi-cellular= means many cell
Plant cells, parts and functions
Cell = is the basic unit of structure and function in a plant. Cell Wall= is the outermost part of the plant cell.
*between the neighboring cell walls is a non-living cementing intercellular layer called middle lamella. It has two main parts, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. *the cytoplasm is bounded by a protoplasmic...
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