Genitics Study Guide

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1. Know what animal biotechnology is
a. Application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing or production of animals or aquatic species. b. Generic improvement of domestic animals
2. What are some examples of animal bio technology?
c. Assisted reproduction:
i. Artificial insemination:
1. Used in livestock breeding( dairy cattle & pigs 2. Techniques have been adapted for use in humans ii. Estrus synchronization and superovulation
iii. Embryo transfer, pregnancy and parturition control d. Somatic cell nuclear transfer-makes nearly identical copies of animals (“clones”) e. Generation of transgenic animals or fish

f. Gene knockout technology to generate animals in which a specific gene has been inactivated 3. Know the types of cloning.
g. Artificial twinning’s ( blastomere separation)- using embryos h. Reproduction cloning: generates an animal with the same DNA as an existing animal iv. Somatic cell nuclear transfer moves DNA from a donor cell to an egg whose nucleus has been removed. v. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred to a female host to develop until birth. i. Therapeutic cloning ( embryo cloning) is the production of embryos for use in reseach vi. The goal is to harvest embryotic stem cells

3. Stem cells can be used to generate any type cell 4. Stem cells are extracted from the egg destroying the embryo 4. Understand the basics of embryonic development
j. Starts after fertilization and includes three stages: vii. Cleavage- the zygote divides into several smaller cells called blastomeres viii. Gastrulation-After cleavage, a rearrangement of cells forms a 3-layered embryo with a primitive gut.---3 germ layers(embryonic tissues) are created; endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm ix. Organogenesis- regions of...
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