There are two types of cloning: molecular cloning and animal cloning. The concept of molecular cloning includes producing bacteria host cells, which contains an additional piece of DNA it did not possess originally, and allows it to reproduce exponentially. By doing this, the inserted gene is also reproduced. The presence of the new gene could allow the cell to synthesize a protein coded for the gene, could allow the cell to carry out other useful processes, or could give the cell a desirable characteristic it did not initially have.
However, animal cloning involves the process of nuclear transfer, wherein the entire nucleus from an embryo cell is taken and transferred into a female nucleus-less, or enucleated, cell. By 1989, nuclei were taken from blastocysts of sheep embryo, fused these with female enucleated egg cells, and subjected the new cell with electrical stimulus to trigger development before implantation into surrogate ewe. This marked the start of cloning mammals. In 1996, mammal cloning gave birth to Dolly the sheep. With genetic engineering, we are able to produce defective or damaged organs and insert them back into our bodies without the fear of rejection. We can prolong human lifespan. And with the emergence of mammal cloning, it won’t be long until human clones are born into our world.
Human cloning, when mass produced, can have serious implications. Although additional people can also mean additional manpower, over population will be one of cloning’s immediate disadvantages. Our limited resources may not be able to handle the demands of the society. We must also take into consideration that cloning is asexual reproduction. The biological benefits and social aspects of reproduction are skipped as we try to modify the genetic sequences of the clones to be immune against common and/or dangerous diseases. As a result, genetic variation is disregarded, which can lead to only one new epidemic to wipe out an entire genetically uniform...
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