Apush Textbook Notes

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Shaping of North America
- Pangea Split North America formed
- “America’s Mountains” = Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, Coast Ranges Peopling the Americas
- 35,000 years ago = Ice Age
Glaciers that connected Eurasia with N. America (present day Bering Sea) Nomadic Asian hunters (immigrant ancestors of the Natives)
Trekked across the Bering isthmus for 250 centuries
Reached far tip of S. America (15,000 miles from Siberia)
By the time Europeans arrived in 1492, 54 million people inhabited the two Am. Continents Incas in Peru
Mayans in Central America
Aztecs in Mexico
- Four Great Nations (Natives, before colonists)
Aztecs
Maya
Inca
Cahokia
- Maize = Indian corn
- Built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce
- Mathematicians (made accurate astronomical observations)
- Aztecs Sought the favor of their gods by offering human sacrifices (over 5,000 people ritually slaughtered for crowning of ONE chieftain) The Earliest Americans
- Agriculture
Corn growing
Accounted for size and sophistication of Na.A. in Mexico and S.A. 5000 BC, hunter-gatherers in highland Mexico developed wild grass into the staple crop of corn – Became staff of life and foundation of complex, large-scare, centralized Aztec and Incan nation-states that eventually emerged Process went slowly and unevenly

Corn planting reached American Southwest by 1200 BC
- Pueblo people (Rio Grande valley) constructed irrigation systems to water their cornfields. Dwelled in villages of multistory buildings. - No dense concentrations of population or complex nation states comparable to the Aztec empire existed in N.Am. outside of Mexico when the Europeans arrived. - Mound Builders (Ohio River valley), Anasazi (Southwest) sustained large settlements after incorporating corn planting. - Cultivation of MAIZE, BEANS, SQUASH

- “Three-Sister” Farming: Beans growing on trellis of cornstalks and squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil - Highest population densities: Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee
- Natives in N.Am. lived in small, scattered, impermanent settlements - Women tended to crops, Men hunted, fished, gathered fuel and cleared fields for planting - Iroquois Developed matrilinear cultures, power and possessions passed down the female side of the family line. - Natives didn’t want to manipulate nature aggressively

- Revered physical world and endowed nature with spiritual properties Indirect Discoverers of the New World
- Norse seafarers from Scandinavia had chanced upon the northeastern shoulder of N.Am. AD 1000. - Landed near present day Newfoundland
Lots of grapes – Named Vinland
Forgotten except for in song
Europeans Enter Africa
- Marco Polo (Italian adventurer) returned to Europe 1295, telling tales about China - Portuguese
Columbus Comes upon a New World
- Oct 12, 1492 = Sighted island in Bahamas
- Discovery convulsed four continents
Europe
Africa
Two Americas
- Global economic system
When Worlds Collide
- Columbus Exchange
“Discovered” America
Old New: Wheat, sugar, rice, coffee, horses, cows, pigs, smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, scarlet fever, slave labor New Old: Gold, silver, corn, potatoes, pineapples, tomatoes, tobacco, beans, vanilla, chocolate, syphilis New race Hispanic/Latino

The Spanish Conquistadores
- 1500s
God, glory, GOLD.
Encomienda
Any Spaniard with a farm or a mine can force natives to work for them - 1512: New laws of Spain (to address the above about Encomienda) - Europe + Africa + Americas

Elizabeth Energizes England
Francis Crake was a sea dog of Queen Elizabeth
Sir Walter Raleigh organized a trip in 1585 in North Carolina’s Roanoke Island to try to colonized it

England on the Eve of Empire
27-28: enclosing [enclosure]; tenancy; joint-stock companies since only the eldest son of the family could inherit, the others wuld look for fortune somewhere else the men joined joint stock exchange companies where they pooled...
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