Apush Chapter 1 Notes

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The meeting of cultures
• North America first discovered when nomads crossed the Bering Strait(into alaska) • Migrations began 14000-16000 years ago, possibly earlier • Resulted from tools, spears, hunting supplies that made it easier to hunt large animals, that crossed between the two continents, drawing people into unsettled territories • Mongolian descent (present day Siberia)

• Southern Tip of South America discovered around 8000 BC
• By 1500 (Europeans coming), there were more people in the Americas than in Europe America Before Columbus
• Global Warming that ended the Ice Age created distinct regions in the USA that exist today. Ended nomadic behavior, created settlement. • adaptation to surroundings created distinct civilizations, even though the same racial heritage existed. • Civilizations of the South

• Most elaborate societies emerged in - S/Cent. America and Mexico • Peru- Inca Empire (Cuzco and Machu Picchu)(over 6 million people) o Created a complex Political System
o Network of Paved Roads that brought tribes together(under single rule) o No system of writing or paper
• Yucatan Peninsula- Mayas (Mayapan)
o Written Language
o Numerical System like Arabic
o Accurate Calendar
o Advanced Agriculture
• Mayans succeeded by Aztecs- Cent. And S Mexico (Tenochtitlan) o once nomadic warrior tribe from north
o Elaborate Administrative, educational, and medical systems comparable to Europe o Pyramids like Egypt
o Harsh Religion that required human sacrifice(skulls of over 100,00 victims found in 1519) o Considered Savages by Europeans despite accomplishments
• Economies and Cities
o Primarily Agriculture Based
o Substantial cities where rulers lived
o Elaborate settlements with religious ceremonial structures o No wheeled vehicles
Civilizations of the North
o Not as large empires or political system
o Complex civilizations with variety
• Northern Region Societies
o Hunting, Fishing, Gathering, or combination
o Eskimos fished and hunted seals
o Pacific Northwest- Salmon fishing
ß Permanent Coastal Settlements
ß Constant violent competition for access to natural resources o Far W- Wealthy and densely populated, based on fishing, hunting small game, and gathering. • Other North American Societies
o Primarily agricultural
o Most developed/elaborate- SW
ß large irrrigation systems created to allow farming on relatively dry land ß Large Towns- centers of trade, craft, religion, and politics ß Pueblos- Large apartments bade of stone and adobe terraces o Great Plains

ß Sedentary farming- Corn and grains
ß most lived in substantial permanent settlements
• Some Nomadic Groups- Hunted Buffalo(followed after horses were introduced) o Eastern USA
ß Woodland Indians
• Greatest food resources
• Farming, Hunting, Fishing, Gathering
• had substantial permanent settlements and large trading networks based on corn and grains ß Cities- trade and political centers
• Cahokia (Near St. Louis)earth mounds
• cities emerged as trading and political centers
• More Mobile Cultures agriculturally
• Exploited Land Quickly rather than make farms permanant
• Cleared Land with Forest Fires or cutting into trees
• crops included corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, etc.
• Left settlement when land wasn’t profitable and established elsewhere • Some villages split during the winter and returned upon warm weather Linguistic Roots
o Tribes east of the Mississippi river linked by linguistic roots o Largest language group-Algonquin (E Seaboard- Canada to Virginia) o 2nd- Iroquois Confederation (Seneca, Cayuga, Onongada, Oneida, and Mohawk) o 3rd- Muskogean (Chicksaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles) o languages and tribes posed as fragile Alliances

o European threats viewed only as to tribe, not to civilizations o Differences in Social, Economic, and Political structures
Tribal Cultures
o No general assumptions about culture in North American tribes due to enormous...
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