Briefly describe the culture: Iroquois (Ho-De-No-Sau-Nee)
1. Between 200 and 500 million people still cultivate using horticultural methods (The Encyclopedia of Earth, 2006). In this chapter, we discuss 2. the following food-producing cultures: Iroquois, Yanomamö, Btsisi’, and Enga. 3. Among the Iroquois (Ho-De-No-Sau-Nee) of upstate New York, men cleared and burned 4. the forest while women planted, weeded, and harvested the crops, primarily “The Three 5. Sisters”—corn, beans, and squash.
6. Children learn at an early age to help— by weeding, scaring away pests from the crops, and even assisting in the harvesting. 7. the land is not alienated from the larger group.
8. women were the key food producers and land was held jointly by women, descent went through the female line. Such lineages are called matrilineages (or matrilineal descent groups). 9. Iroquois maize farmers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced three to five times more grain per acre than wheat farmers in Europe. The higher productivity of Iroquois agriculture can be attributed to two factors. First, the absence of plows in the western hemisphere allowed Iroquois farmers to maintain high levels of soil organic matter, critical for grain yields. Second, maize has a higher yield potential than wheat because of its C4 photosynthetic pathway and lower protein content. However, tillage alone accounted for a significant portion of the yield advantage of the Iroquois farmers. When the Iroquois were removed from their territories at the end of the eighteenth century, US farmers occupied and plowed these lands. Within fifty years, maize yields in five counties of western New York dropped to less than thirty bushels per acre. They rebounded when US farmers adopted practices that countered the harmful effects of plowing. Authors:PLEASANT, JANE MT.1.Source:Agricultural History; Fall2011, Vol. 85 Issue 4, p460-492, 33p.Document Type:Article
identify three specific examples of how the kinship system of the chosen culture impacts the way this culture behaves (i.e. thinks, acts, lives). : 1. Cultivation was done cooperatively among the matrilineally related women of the longhouse. 2. An older woman would act as labor organizer
3. At the time of European contact, Iroquois women produced about 65 percent of all products (Johansen, 1999). 4. Iroquois women were valued by the community for their labor and for their contribution to village subsistence. 5. Iroquois women owned the maize; this gave them power within Iroquoian society 6. If women were against a particular raiding activity, they withheld maize from the warriors, which meant the men could not go (Nowak, 1979). 7. Iroquois sexual division of labor is typical of many societies, with women and men performing distinct roles. 8. Children and the elderly are less likely to do heavy labor. 9. Property rights remain invested in the family and kin group. 10. People have rights to use land based on inheriting
11. a particular status and the rights and privileges that go with the status. Status is typically determined by sex, age, and kinship. 12. The Iroquois matrilineages, for example, provided women with the rights to fields and tools. In addition, 13. Iroquois lived in longhouses, which were long structures in which nuclear families inhabited compartments within the structure. 14. Postmarital residence was matrilocal; in other words, the husband lived in his wife’s community—in this case, a longhouse. 15. The eldest woman in the matrilineage was most influential in decision making, including the allocation of resources and property. 16. Marriage: Among the Iroquois, the selection of marital partners is, in part, determined by kinship 17. since...