Anatomy and Physiology Unit Notes
Unit 1: Organization of the Human Body
Ana - prefix that means up or back again.
Physio - a prefix that means natural or physical.
Ology - a suffix that means the study of something.
Homeo - a prefix that means like or similar.
Thoraci -a prefix that means chest.
Stasis - a suffix that means the slowing of a bodily fluid.
Abdomino - a prefix that means abdomen.
Anatomy-the study of structure.
Physiology - the study of how a structure functions.
Cell - the basic unit of structure and function in all living things. Organism -the highest level of organization, which is made up of the different organ systems. Directional - terms describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. System -group of organs that work together to perform a particular function. Cavities -spaces of the body contain the internal organs, or viscera. Plane - flat surface divided with an imaginary line.
The cavities of the body contain internal organs.
The two main cavities are the ventral and dorsal cavity. •
The dorsal cavity is divided into two parts, cranial cavity and vertebral cavity. •
The ventral is the larger cavity and is divided into two parts (thoracic and abdomino pelvic) by the diaphragm, which is a dome- shaped muscle important in the respiratory system. •
The thoracic cavity is the upper ventral cavity which contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and the nerves. The ribs surround the organs of the thoracic cavity. •
The lower part of the ventral cavity is divided into two parts, abdominal and pelvic portions. •
The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and adrenal glands. The pelvic cavity contains the urogenital system and the rectum. •
The pelvic cavity is smaller than the abdominal cavity and contains organs that are more posterior in the body.
A plane is an imaginary line that cuts through the body wall or body structure. The following describes the different planes: •
Cuts or planes along the long axis are called longitudinal. •
Cuts or planes across the long axis are called cross or transverse sections. •
The two longitudinal cuts either divide a part into right and left parts or into anterior and posterior sections. •
Sagittal cuts divide the body into left and right parts. •
Midsagittal or medial cuts divide the body into right and left halves (equal parts). •
Frontal cuts divide the body into front and back parts.
Transverse or cross sections divide the body into top and bottom parts. Picture:
Atom: the simplest level is the atom, which are building blocks of matter. An important atom in the human body is oxygen. Molecules: atoms combine together to form molecules. An example of a molecule is water, which is the combination of two different kinds of atoms (hydrogen and oxygen). Cell: Molecules combine together to form cells, which are basic units of structure and function in all living things. Examples of cells are blood and nerve cells. Tissue: when cells combine together to complete a particular function, they make up tissue. Two examples of tissues are muscle and heart tissue. Organs: when tissues combine together to complete a particular function, they make up an organ. Two examples of organs are the stomach and the liver. Organ system: when organs work together, they make up an organ system. For example, the digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
Unit 2: Cells
Cyto - prefix that means cell
Mito - prefix that means threadlike
Pino - prefix that means to drink
Phago -prefix that means to eat
Adip - prefix that means fat or fatty tissue
Histo - prefix that means tissue
Lipo - prefix that means fat or fatty tissue
Cardio - prefix that...
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