WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.
Anatomy is the study of the human body while physiology, is the study of how the body functions. For example, the cardiovascular system includes the heart, veins, and blood. The heart produces a controlled electrical shock that causes the heart to contort. This creates a pumping action that pushes the blood through the veins and arties of the body.
2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. a) Chemical Level: atoms combine to form molecules.
b) Cellular Level: cells are made up of molecules.
c) Tissue Level: tissues consist of similar types of cells.
d) Organ Level: organs are made up of different tissues. Ex) Muscles are made of connective tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and nerve tissue. e) Organ System Level: organ systems are consist of different organs that work closely together. Ex) The digestive system is made up of the mouth, esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, the gallbladder, the rectum, etc. f) Organismal Level: human organisms are made up of many organ systems. Ex) human have the skeletal system, muscular system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, integumentary system, digestive system, reproductive system, etc.
3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system. a. Integumentary- forms the external body covering: the epidermis. b. Skeletal- protects and supports soft bodily organs: bones, joints, and cartilage. c. Muscular- allows locomotion, maintains posture, and produces heat: muscles d. Nervous- fast-acting control system that responds to internal and external stimulus: the brain, sensory receptors, spinal cord, and nerves. e. Endocrine- secrets regulatory hormones: pineal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes, ovary and thymus glands. f. Cardiovascular- transports materials in the body via blood pumped by the heart: heart, veins, and blood. g. Lymphatic- returns fluids to blood vessels and disposes of debris: lymph nodes, lymphatic capillaries, vessels, spleen, liver, tonsils, and thymus gland.
h. Respiratory- keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide: lung, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchus. i. Digestive- breaks down food to use for energy: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. j. Urinary- eliminates waste; regulation of water and electrolytes: kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. k. Reproductive- production of offspring(male)seminal vesicles, prostate gland, vas deferens, testis, scrotum, and penis(female) mammary glands, uterine tube, uterus, and vagina.
4. Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things. a. Maintain life functions
b. Movement- locomotion, movement of substances
c. Responsiveness-ability to sense changes and react.
d. Digestion- break-down and delivery of nutrients
e. Metabolism- chemical reactions within the body.
f. Excretion- the elimination of waste from metabolic reaction. g. Reproduction- future generation
h. Growth- increasing the cell size and number
5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life.
a. Nutrients-chemicals for energy and cell building, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. b. Oxygen-requires for chemical reaction.
c. Water-60%-80% of body weight; provides metabolic reaction. d. Stable Body Temperature.
e. Atmospheric Pressure must be appropriate.
6. Define the term homeostasis, what is involved in maintaining homeostasis, and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i.e. negative...
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