"Epistemology" Essays and Research Papers

Epistemology

Rachel Kunker Philosophy Epistemology October 7, 2011 Is it true to say that there is no truth? The very concept itself is contradictory, but is still a topic worth exploring. If a person were to simply go about their life believing everything they ever heard or experienced to be true, they could be deceived without their own knowledge. Say they overheard someone talking about Sam Houston when they stated, “... and then Sam Houston claimed her land.” Rightfully, without any other knowledge...

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EPISTEMOLOGY

object, but that does not necessarily mean it will always happen. Therefore, Hume, who starts out as an empiricist, has arrived at the conclusion where an individual may not have knowledge at all, of skeptic doubt. This is explored through the three epistemology questions, the process he did take, and what the reader thinks on the matter. According to Hume, with his process of thought with empiricism, thinks knowledge is possible. He believed that all information about the world comes through...

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Epistemology Essay

Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous "cogito" argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question. Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge...

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Descartes' Epistemology

Epistemology ------------------------------------------------- Carefully explain Descartes’ cogito and his attempt to build his knowledge structure from the ground up. (Be as succinct as possible.) Does Descartes succeed or fail in that attempt? Justify your answer in full. Descartes’ Epistemology This essay attempts to explain Descartes’ epistemology of his knowledge, his “Cogito, Ergo Sum” concept (found in the Meditations), and why he used it [the cogito concept] as a foundation when building...

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Epistemology and Knowledge

Final Paper Roni Daniel December 10, 2012 Dr. Kathy Downey University of Phoenix PHL/716 Epistemology, or the study of knowledge, requires the scholar analyze the what, how, and why’s of their own knowledge. Asking these questions of themselves is essentially applying that which they have learned. There are different origins of knowledge as conceptualized by philosophers, educators, and scientists. Early philosophers defined knowledge as “justified true belief” (Cooper, pg. 23). In order...

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Problems of Epistemology

Epistemology is the study of our right to the beliefs we have. More generally, we start from what we might call our cognitive stances, and ask whether we do well to have those stances. Cognitive stances include both our beliefs and (what we take to be) our knowings; and in another dimension they include our attitudes towards the various strategies and methods we use to get new beliefs and filter out old ones, as well as the products of those strategies and methods. Epistemology, on this showing,...

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Epistemology: Scientific Method and Knowledge

Epistemology can be difficult to understand and maybe even harder to say. The short answer is that epistemology is the theory of knowledge. Perhaps that is too short of an answer, allow me expand. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions concerning the nature, scope, and sources of knowledge. Even these concepts can be foreign to the common public. The nature of knowledge is basically the qualities that constitute knowledge. One would find this answer by asking "What is...

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Aquinas Epistemology and God

knowledge and put them to use. Simply put, he investigates the process of knowledge. He identified three levels of acquiring knowledge namely: sense-experience, imaginations or ideations and intellection. Aquinas thus made an important contribution to epistemology, recognising the central part played by sense perception in human cognition. It is through the senses that we first become acquainted with existent, material things. Sense experience is contact with material things through the senses which supplies...

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Skepticism & Contextualism in Epistemology

 Skepticism & Contextualism in Epistemology Epistemology, is generally understood as the study of knowledge. The word Epistemology was coined by Scottish philosopher James F. Ferrier, it is a word derived from Greek – Episteme meaning knowledge and logos meaning study. The study of knowledge or Epistemology covers not only basic day to day conceptualizations and realizations, but it is a field of study in itself that covers wide array of topics and almost everything one have learnt throughout...

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Epistemology Study Guide

Epistemology Study Guide 1. How can the senses deceive us? a. Our senses are how we perceive the world. Our eyes, nose, tongue, fingers, and ears feed raw information to our brain, which then turns it into information we can use. If we lose one of our senses, we lose that entire set of raw data. As such, we place incredible amounts of reliance on our senses. The only way our senses can deceive us is if they give us the wrong data, which then becomes wrong information. If life is an illusion...

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Meno: Epistemology and Socrates

capacity but can be known in some capacity. With the false statement, Meno’s paradox is void. The paradox also rules out learning because knowledge can not be acquired. There is potential to gain knowledge through learning. Socrates explores the epistemology of knowledge. He states the soul is eternal and therefore has a vast knowledge base of past experiences. "as the soul is immortal, has been born often and has seen all things here and in the underworld, there is nothing which it has not learned;...

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Epistemology and Stick

vhis quote is specifically about deception. If you have ever practiced deception, which can come in many forms, it becomes obvious. One way you can use deception is by camouflage. The walking stick, an insect, is a perfect example. It appears to be a twig or a stick, but in fact, it is an insect. Most will be decieved by the appearance, but the intelligence of a few can see what has been carefully hidden. Basically, if you are smart enough, you will see through the camouflage and recognize that...

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Epistemology - Foundational Internalism

(BonJour 7). In the case that immediate justifiers are non-propositional, than the necessity for them to be justified becomes negligible leading to a verifiable mess of convoluting statements that are neither true nor false; where the main goal of epistemology, which is finding out what is ‘true’, is negated due to the absence of a statement’s capacity to create a truth value (Bonjour 12). Referring back to the headache example, Bonjour says that the ‘direct apprehension’ of the givenness that the headache...

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Epistemology Vocabulary Epistemology

Epistemology Vocabulary Epistemology: The branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge. Rationalism: The position that reason alone, without the aid of sensory info, is capable of arriving at some knowledge, at some undeniable truths. Empiricism: the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience. Idealism: in metaphysics, the position that reality is ultimately non matter; in EPISTEMOLOGY, the...

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Branches of Philosophy

Describe the branches of philosophy There are five types of branches in philosophy. These branches can be categories as Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Politics, and Estetics. The first branch of philosophy is Metaphysics, also known as the study of existence. Metaphysics act as a foundation in philosophy as well as the foundation of the view of our world. Metaphysics is very important to all of us as it help us to deal with reality by explaining and interpreting the world and nature around...

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Response Paper

Reading Response Epistemology is a philosophy that specifically focuses on the scope of knowledge. In a sense the questions is asked “what we know” or “What we can be sure of”. These are the basic fundamentals that surround how we think. In this paper, I will discuss views presented by philosophers that relate to me and my profession. In addition, I will explore the similarities and differences in epistemology. Perception as it relates to epistemology focuses on our perpetual knowledge...

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Main B of Philosophyranches

of identity Epistemology It deals with the definition of knowledge and its scope and limitations. It translates from Greek to mean 'theory of knowledge'. It questions the meaning of knowledge, how we obtain knowledge, how much do we know, and how do we have this knowledge? Epistemology is further divided into Alethiology - The study of nature of truth Formal Epistemology - The use of logic and probability to illuminate problems related to epistemology Meta-epistemology - Meta-philosophical...

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Education Philisophy Outline and Rational

structure knowledge. Axiology History 1902: Paul Lapie & E. von Harmann on the discipline of the nature of values Major questions Good vs bad: what is quality? Right vs wrong: overlaps with ethics Interesting vs dull: overlaps with epistemology (what is worth knowing?) 2 Educational philosophy Assessment is based in the concept of high-quality vs low-quality work and learning Evaluation is one of the highest order learning objectives. It asks children to determine...

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Phil 201 Study Guide Lesson 10

this lesson, we begin a new unit on epistemology, which is the philosophical study of knowledge claims. In this first lesson on epistemology, we begin by examining the question “What do we mean when we say we know something?” What exactly is knowledge? We will begin with a presentation that introduces the traditional definition of knowledge. Wood then discusses some of the basic issues raised in the study of epistemology and then presents an approach to epistemology that focuses on obtaining the intellectual...

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Chapters 1 and 2 Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman

He is saying that our technology and tools are serving as a type of mind control and we are in deep. In Chapter 2 "Media as Epistemology Postman (1985) begins to tell us his plans for the book. Epistemology means the theory of knowledge, how we gain and use knowledge. Postman (1985) wants to clear his name of being a snob by insisting that his focus is on epistemology rather than aesthetics. He insists that he not only appreciates junk, but also finds it harmless. He believes that television is...

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Organisation Theory

modernist organization theory, Michael Reed introduced two different metatheoretical terms which are ontology and epistemology (Reed, 1992). The modernist ontology is objectivism and the reality can be observes under see, touch, taste, hear and smell. For an instance, individual and organizations can be rational and structured based on people’s knowledge of it. Next, the modernist epistemology is positivism that the knowledge is discovered through the scientific measurements and test. In the theoretical...

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Chris Final Paper

 Shaping Personal Epistemology Chris Arbuckle University of Phoenix Knowledge in Theory and Practice PHL/716 Dr. Katherine Downey January 2, 2015 Shaping Personal Epistemology Achieving a balance between consumer relations and employee retention is paramount to the overall success of a company’s sales force in multiple areas. Apple Inc. uses a specific philosophy that has been developed for their retail branch since the division started in 2001. Apple’s philosophical approach to consumer...

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Unit

the free will to choose what we want to do in life, that is our free will. Epistemology is the area of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge. According to, http://www.philosophy-index.com/philosophy/epistemology.php, “The main concerns of epistemology are the definition of knowledge, the sources of knowledge (innate ideas, experience, etc.), the process of acquiring knowledge and the limits of knowledge. Epistemology considers that knowledge can be obtained through experience and/or reason.”...

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Philossopy of Science

answered shows that science and philosophy are, in fact, inextricably linked. Philosophy has its subdisciplines: Logic: valid forms of reasoning; Aesthetics: study of nature of beauty; Ethics and political philosophy: moral values and justice; Epistemology: the nature, extent and justification of knowledge; Metaphysics: study of thing we believe exist. So, Philosophy deals with two sets of questions: *The questions that science (physical, biological, social, behavioral) cannot answer and perhaps...

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Chapter 1&2

Either the meeting is at school or at home. Minor premise:   The meeting is not at home. Conclusion:      Therefore the meeting is at school. Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics: the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence Epistemology: the study of knowledge, identifying and developing criteria and methodologies for what we know and why we know it Ethics: the study of moral values and principles Political and Social Philosophy: the study of social values and political forms...

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Exam Two Review

his Metaphysics * Philosophical inquiry into the nature of truth is called epistemology * The study of epistemology attempts to describe and explain the nature of knowledge and truth, and whether it is possible to achieve genuine knowledge or perceive an ultimate truth KEY TERMS Metaphysics – most generally, the philosophical investigation of the nature, constitution, and structure of reality Epistemology – the study of the nature of knowledge and justificaiton Reality Is the Eternal...

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Phi 208 Final Paper

Ethics and Moral Reasoning (GTP1306D) Michele Clearman-Warner 03/12/13 Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy related to the scope and nature of knowledge. The subject focuses on examining the nature of knowledge, and how it relates to beliefs, justification, and truth. Epistemology contract with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. “Epistemology is the philosophical investigation into this question: What can we know...

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Philosophy Prep

nature of free actions. 25. Give some examples of questions that are asked in metaphysics. Which one(s) do you think are best indicative of the subject matter of metaphysics? Explain. 26. Describe the subject matter of epistemology, and explain what questions in epistemology you think are worth pursuing. 27. Describe Plato's doctrine of the Forms. What questions was it meant to answer? 28. Describe Plato's hierarchical metaphysics, explaining the relationships between the levels. 29...

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The Different Schools of Philosophy Which Affect Education

education. Philosophy is made of two major divisions, namely; metaphysics and epistemology. Metaphysics is a subdivision of philosophy which systematically analyzes the question of the ultimate reality. During the middle ages, metaphysis became the most important branch in philosophical concerns. Reality is determined by the individual experiences. All reality is reducible to one fundamental substance- “spirit”. Epistemology is the branch in philosophy that is basic to the major difference between...

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The Philosophy of Philosophy

considered as an auxiliary science, the formula being philosophia ancilla theologiae. At the end of the Renaissance the special doctrine considering being as such was named ontology and a corresponding doctrine about knowledge came under the name of epistemology or gnoseology. In the 18th century Alexander Baumgarten considered the special case of sensitive knowledge and called it 'gnoseologia inferior' (as opposed to a superior rational one) and with Kant it became aesthetics. The Greek had always had...

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Study of Knowledge

Epistemology – The Study of Knowledge Jeff Castro PHI 200 Dr. Akins February 4, 2013 Epistemology – The Study of Knowledge The study of knowledge has always been the journey toward truth and understanding. Epistemology deals with the creation and distribution of knowledge in certain areas of inquiry. Humans should be free to gain, study and question knowledge and claims without repercussions in any social, cultural or religious setting. As we move forward in our understanding of...

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Defining Philosophy Paper

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. In those well-known religions, a person could get plenty of leadership on philosophy beliefs. The different divisions of philosophy normally fall into questions related to Metaphysics, which means being or existence; Epistemology related to knowledge; Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy which is related to values; and Aesthetic, the study of art. The benefit of philosophy is to allow people making careful differences in thought, words, and argument, and recognizing...

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student

 Lock’s theory on the primary and secondary qualities are both properties of matter, it is a conceptual distinction in epistemology which means it concerns the nature’s physical reality. For example the five main properties for the primary quality is solidity, motion, extension, number and figure they do not rely on subjective judgments, the issue of accuracy applies to primary quality as well. Secondary quality’s is based four properties; color, smell, taste and sound these quality’s effect people...

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Introduction to Philosophy

of philosophy is discussed in practical terms. Why is it important? What purpose does it serve and what reasons do people have for pursuing an education in it? How can this affect my life? The major branches of philosophy, which are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Political & Social, Aesthetics and Logic, are also discussed along with the contributing questions specific to each branch and what each branch focuses on. Philosophical Areas of Inquiry, Personal Relations and Application As stated by...

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Elements of Philosophy

Noemi Faith A. Reyes OC199 2008-30806 Prof. Villar ONTOLOGY | EPISTEMOLOGY | METHODOLOGY | TELEOLOGY | -“…is from the Greek and means the study of the ontos or of the one, the universe. It is the study of those universal concepts which apply to everything, as well as those specific concepts which apply to the most substantial dimensions of Being (Fox,1999, p.1).”-“…comes from the Greek Ontologia and means “talking” (-logia) about being (on/onto). It is a philosophical...

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Descartes vs Locke

The study of knowledge, or epistemology, contains theoretical methods in which information is learned. Of these methods, there are two that are most widely accepted. Rationalism and empiricism are also the most widely debated methods of knowledge. Rationalism claims that a priori processes and intuition gain knowledge. Rationalism claims that knowledge is innate; but that it varies among humans. At the other end of the spectrum, empiricism claims that knowledge is gained largely by experience, observation...

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Epistomology

Love and the three epistemologies: What is epistemology? Using my own “common sense”, I would say it's the study of how we know. It is the ways of knowing. We use it to understand our reality. To get an even better understanding, we can reference the definition from Dictionary.com, which states: “EPISTEMOLOGY: A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.” The World English Dictionary words it like so: “The theory of knowledge, the...

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Simo

in which argument produces belief, and trains young people for responsible civic action. Descartes’ philosophy, or the Cartesian method did not see the same. • The main question was how does rhetoric connect to the construction of knowledge? ( epistemology—study of the nature of knowledge). Bacon proposed that the answer could be found in psychology. This encompasses the mental faculties engaged in speech, writing, and discourse of any kind: i.e., philosophy for Reason, history for Memory, and literature...

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The contributions of Plato to the western civilization and philosophy.

since it is not concrete and unchanging for each person. Nature of Knowledge and Learning: Plato's ideas on knowledge has survived throughout the ages and is still relevant in today's society. Today it has come to be known as Platonic epistemology. Platonic Epistemology: Plato believed that knowledge is innate, or inborn, and that the development of ideas buried deep in the soul, and may be guided out by teachers. Plato drew a sharp distinction between knowledge, which is certain, and mere opinion...

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Cogito Ergo Sum

Jalissa Jimenez November 13, 2012 Prof. Rada Cogito ergo sum, a phrase that is said to be the fundamental element of western philosophy and what was the centerpiece of Rene Descartes’ epistemology. It is a simple statement but one that sets the standard for a principle upon which all knowledge is based. Many sources assess René Descartes to be the father of modern philosophy. In his lifetime he had made many noteworthy contributions to mathematics and physics. And there are of course his...

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Organizational Epistemology

Running Head: ORGANIZATIONAL EPISTEMOLOGY   1  Organizational Epistemology St. Rachel E. Ustanny University of Phoenix ORGANIZATIONAL EPISTEMOLOGY   2  There are different perspectives about the origin of knowledge, which have influenced the development of concepts such as a priori and a posteriori truth, epistemic regress, and sensual perception—Descartes (as cited in Cooper, 1999) argued that there are certain undeniable truths, which are obtained from our senses; Feldman (2003)...

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Plato Essay

“divided line.” (You can use the visual image, but explain it.) Plato was extremely devoted in answering the sophists’ skepticism about reason and morality. To do so, he spent more time than any philosopher before him studying knowledge, or epistemology. He realized that to answer the sophists’ skepticism he had to first solve the three main problems that earlier philosophers had left behind; the problems of change, the “one” and the “many”, and the problem between appearance and reality. Plato...

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Philosophy

PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, time, the relationship between mind and body, objects and their properties, wholes...

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Plato Defends Rationalism

Plato was a highly educated Athenian Philosopher. He lived from 428-348 B.C. Plato spent the early portion of his life as a disciple to Socrates, which undoubtedly helped shape his philosophical theories. One topic that he explored was epistemology. Epistemology is the area of philosophy that deals with questions concerning knowledge, and that considers various theories of knowledge (Lawhead 52). Plato had extremely distinct rationalistic viewpoints. Rationalism is the claim that reason, or intellect...

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Philosophy of Man

illusion  Branches of Philosophy 1. Epistemology  the term came from the Greek word “episteme” meaning knowledge and the suffix “ology” meaning the science of or the study of.  area of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge;  the main concerns of epistemology is the definition of knowledge, source of knowledge (innate ideas, experience, etc.), process of acquiring and limits of knowledge  knowledge is defined as justified true belief  Epistemology seeks to answer basic questions about...

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Characteristics of Social Science Research

interrelationships, casual explanations and natural laws which govern them.” (www.scribd.com) It applies scientific method to social inquiry on  Human beings and their life contexts  Philosophical questions relating to the • Nature of knowledge (epistemology), • Values (axiology) and • Being (ontology) (Somekh, 2005) Objectives of social research 1) To facilitate the understanding of human behavior 2) It seeks to find explanation to unexplained social 3) 4) 5) 6) phenomena To identify functional...

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Defining Philosophy

simply to know the answer. Most philosophical questions tend to fall into one of these four areas: Questions related to being or existence (Metaphysics), Questions related to knowledge (Epistemology), Questions related to values, and Questions of logic or the theory of correct reasoning. Metaphysics and Epistemology are branches of philosophy that are very similar to one another. The questions related to values are standards of conduct and conditions of responsibility. Metaphysics is the branch...

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Branches Of Philosophy 1

reflect on how to make classroom actions consistent with our beliefs related to learning. However, before we lost our “beliefs” we need to delve deeper into what makes up our philosophy. There are four major components to philosophy – Metaphysics, Epistemology, Axiology, and Logic. In order to be able to understand philosophy we need to be able to understand its components.  Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of reality. In metaphysics, one asks themselves...

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Plato's Influence

a world of evil and negligence. The main idea was to create ideal society that is corrupt free, and able to deliver great ideas without any external influence. Plato’s audience associated the allegory of the cave with his metaphysics and epistemology connected with his political stand. That the ideal person to rule is one who has moved out of the cave of ignorance and evilness, and his or her eyes are envisaged on goodness. This enlightened that people of the society are supposed to run the...

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The Age of Philosophy

skepticism, which brings up opposing views and Philosophy relies on rational argument to fully understand a concept. Philosophy is said to have six main branches of thought embedded in it: metaphysics, which is the nature of reality and the universe, epistemology, which is the study of knowledge and how it is acquired, and logic, which is how to get a valid argument. There is also: ethics, which is the study of right and wrong and how people should live, politics, which is the study of government and citizen...

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Post Modernism Modernism

to begin is with the philosophical choices of ontology and epistemology. Ontology is concerned with how you choose to define what is real whereas epistemology is concerned with how you form knowledge and establish criteria for evaluating it. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) Modernism Modernist ontology is objectivism where it belief in objective, external reality whose existence is independent of our knowledge of it whereas for epistemology, it is positivism where truth is discovered through conceptualisation...

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Organisation Theory

| | | |(Dialogue) | | | |Epistemology (How do we|Positivism – we discover Truth through valid |Postmodernism – knowledge cannot be an accurate|Interpretivism – all knowledge is relative to |Subjectivism - ‘knowing’ the ‘truth’ is | |gain knowledge on the |conceptualisation/...

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Journal Article Analysis

beliefs and higher order thinking. The authors expanded their research to a larger outside population with varying degrees of education, a wide range of ages as well as diverse life experiences. Most epistemological researchers thought of personal epistemology as a complex, one-dimensional belief (Schommer-Aikins, 2002). Schommer, in earlier studies, conceived of these beliefs as a system of beliefs, which dwelled at different levels of sophistication. The working assumption for the questionnaire was...

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Research Paradigm

understood and studied." (Guba, 1990). Denzin and Lincoln (2001) listed three categories of those beliefs: Ontology: what kind of being is the human being. Ontology deals with the question of what is real. Epistemology: what is the relationship between the inquirer and the known: "epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge and the process by which knowledge is acquired and validated" (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996) Methodology: how do we know the world, or gain knowledge...

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Branches of Philosophy

BS Architecture Olanio, Marc Q. BS Architecture Branches of Philosophy Main branches of philosophy Traditionally, there are five main branches of philosophy. They are: Metaphysics, which deals with the fundamental questions of reality. Epistemology, which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we can know. Logic, which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is concerned with human values and how individuals should act...

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Epistemological, Methodological and Socio-Cultural Constraints to Social Science Research

acceptability as a true theory. Over the years however, social science research, especially in Africa have suffered some constraining factors, which are epistemological, methological, as well as socio-cultural in nature. EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS Epistemology is the study of knowledge, theory of knowledge of the research process is rarely conformed to this meaning by social scientists. The paradox, according to Connell (2004) quoting Bulmer (1977:276) is that, the way social scientists theorize does...

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Plato's Allegory of the Cave and the Condition of Mankind

parable itself is highly symbolic and asserts that any knowledge gained through perceptual awareness is an illusion and are mere reflections of the highest truths. This allegory can be interpreted in many ways; however in the context of platonic epistemology it flawlessly conveys Plato’s “Theory of forms” of an immaterial realm of abstractions considered to be the highest reality in which upon all natural phenomenon is based on. The difference between truth and knowledge itself moreover is a much...

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1-Plato Discusses Father-Son Relationshipl

questions. Questioning the authority, whether it be the government, the Church, or numerous other topics is essential for creating a new way of thinking or any other change in how an individual or society acts. The down side however to Plato's new epistemology is that it excludes the masses and portrays people who disagree with the "authority" as irrational, which in my opinion destroys the idea that all people are one and created equal. Regarded as Plato's most important work, the Republic has long...

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Matrix: Philosophy and Plato Berkeley Hobbes

Matrix Field Definition Historical Developments Schools Of Thought Key Contributors Principal Issues Epistemology Epistemology is the investigation into the grounds and nature of knowledge. Found in the 1800’s From Old Greece forward, Plato, Socrates, and developmental ideas. Rationalism means the knowledge can be acquired through the use of reason and empiricism...

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Epistomplogy

In the world the views on Epistemology may seem unclear some believe in the idea of knowledge that is just known, Rationalism, and others may question the thought or idea of how does someone know for sure, Skepticism. Descartes made a strong case for the rational approach to knowledge, he had an intense desire to establish his beliefs on a foundation of absolute certainty to do this he then applied the method of rational doubt. He decided that if he found any reason to doubt...

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