"Ontology" Essays and Research Papers

Ontology

1. If things are different they are still grasped by the net of our concepts 2. There is nothing beyond that we can think 3. Doesn't do better than verificationism *How does realism depend on verificationism?* may be essay question for test* Ontology What things exist? Involves question of kinds of things that exist Some issues belong to certain experts e.g. Existence of snow on the alps But WVO Quine for e.g. Has been worried about whether there are abstracts as opposed to physical objects ...

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The Theory of the Ideas and Plato’s Ontology

I. THE THEORY OF THE IDEAS AND PLATO’S ONTOLOGY    I. 1. The ontological dualism        The theory of the Ideas is the base of Plato’s philosophy: the Ideas are not only the real objects ontologically speaking, but they are the authentically objects of knowledge epistemologically speaking. From  the point of view  of ethics and  politics,  they are the foundation of  the right behaviour,  and anthropologically speaking they are  the base  of Plato’s dualism and they even allow him demonstrate  the...

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Empiricism Semantics and Ontology Carn

 “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology” by Rudolf Carnap I. The Problem of Abstract Entities Empiricists attempt to limit themselves to nominalistic language, a language not containing references to abstract entities such as properties, classes, relations, numbers, propositions, etc. They treat mathematics as a mere calculus wherein no interpretation is given or can be given. However, abstract entities are impossible to avoid for some scientific contexts. The theory of meaning and truth is the problem...

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Metaphysics: Ontology: Dualism vs. Materialism

METAPHYSICS: ONTOLOGY: DUALISM VS. MATERIALISM The original idea of the word 'philosophy' was a 'love of wisdom' (Cowan 2). Philosophy is meant to explore the 'big questions' and try to find answers as best we can in the time we have been given. One of the areas of study in philosophy is metaphysics, which deals in the ideas of the nature of reality. "We look at the world, and we assume that it is the way it appears to be. It is not." (Carreira 7). There is much to reality that can be discussed...

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African American Religion, Ontology and Stories - Essay

African American religion, Ontology and stories Diane Alvarado History 110 Dr. Lehman Exam 1 African Americans have many values and believes. They have their own commonalities that are found in African religion and their ontology. Their commonalities and shared ontology tell us about the Africans worldview. Not only that but we get to learn about their creation stories that helps us understand their culture and values. There are different stories and myths that explain how humans were...

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Research Methodological Approaches

the research project for next year. Business Research Ontology ‘A theory concerning the nature of social phenomena as entities that are to be admitted to a know ledge system’ (Saunders, 2007: 605). The word ‘ontology’ seems to generate a lot of controversy. It has a long history in philosophy, in which it refers to the subject of existence. It is also often confused with epistemology, which is about knowledge and knowing. Ontology is one of core areas of philosophical study, which research...

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The Sin

“The Matrix” can be compared to ontology, the study of being or what is, “The Matrix” relates to both dualism, both body and mind are affected, and finally it relates to the brain in a vat and the “evil genius” ruining his view of life. Parmenides was a philosopher who believed that all reality is one, it is not a plurality, and reality is being. He came up with “Ontology” or in Greek “Ontos”, ontology is the study of being or “what is”. Ontology has two parts to it one, what is...

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Metaphysics and Nominalism

category of individuals like individual persons, individual objects, individual animals, or various other individual materials. “What the austere nominalist wants to claim is that an ontology of concrete particulars provides the resources for dealing with all the phenomena the metaphysical realist claims presuppose an ontology of multiply exemplifiable entities” (Loux 53). The austere nominalist refutes the realist claim that universals are necessary and serve as handling the phenomena of attribute agreement...

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Morals and What Makes a Human Being

the effects of their actions, and their effect on other people. Being that technology is created by humans, we also being to deal with the theory of ontology, or the “specification of a conceptualization.” The philosophy of being is the overall view of Ontology, but I want to focus on “Human Ontology,” and its relation to human morals. "Human Ontology" would be how humans “are” and their relations to morals on the idea of what the morals are of the people who contain this belief. In philosophical...

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Assumptions in Quantitative Research

discussed within the ontology, methodology, and epistemology of quantitative research. I will highlight assumptions related to reality, objectivity and measurement and, to a lesser extent, explore assumptions such as determinism, control, and truth claims. Underlying Assumptions in Quantitative Research The paradigm undergirding quantitative research will guide the researchers underlying assumptions framing this approach. This includes the epistemology (knowledge), ontology (reality), and methodology...

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A Descartes Perspective of Euthanasia

thus one can only conjecture his opinion on the matter. This essay seeks to highlight Descartes main beliefs in the three main areas of philosophical endeavour; epistemology, ontology, and ethics. It will then infer from these how Descartes would approach euthanasia. Descartes was a rationalist; he based his ideas about ontology and ethics on his ideas about epistemology. He demonstrated the importance of the mind with his analogy on wax. Wax, Descartes reasoned, is in a completely different form when...

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Philosophy

Phil 4 Midterm Study Guide Introduction: - Ontology is the study of being, kinds of things that exists, the different kinds of being. What is ultimately real? - Material: spatial/public/mechanical - Immaterial: nonspatial/private/teleological - Materialism: Matter is truly real and immaterial things are not - Idealism: Ideas are ultimately real - Dualism: Reality is both material and immaterial - Monism: There’s one single reality Lau Tzu (Laozi): - Taos analogy to water: water...

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Explain Feuerbach s teaching on Religion

explanation that there is an objective ontological reality on which humans are dependent(i.e God). The quest for modern man is to show what these experiences actually mean and then to recover humanity’s place in Nature. This is why Feuerbach Gods ontology is irrelevant; what matters is God as meaning for humans. God is therefore a necessary idea on we depended for meaning. If that is so Gods existence is only meaningful in so far that he is a symbol for us as a ‘pour soi’ being. Therefor Gods ‘en...

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Book Analysis: Being and Time

Kaylee Brown Professor Jeffrey Librett COLT 470 10 November 2013 Being and Time by Martin Heidegger the concept of “Resoluteness” Martin Heidegger was a German Philosopher who examined the concept of phenomenological ontology. All of his writings, such as: Being and Time, What is Metaphysics?, Identity and Difference, and What is Called Thinking? have influenced the progression and development of ideas on existentialism and temporal being (Scott). Specifically, in one of his works, Being...

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Against Dualism

dualism may render mental causation superfluous if all causal laws are subsumed under the physical, and this actually runs the very strong risk of collapsing into physicalism. Having argued against dualist positions, can any theory salvage two-state ontology? Briefly, and with the aid of McGinn, I contend that this question is unanswerable and the mind-body problem unsolvable, because, as I have argued, ‘we are cut off by our very cognitive constitution from achieving a conception of that natural property...

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family planning

nonetheless important. Ancient philosophy is grounded on Being or Logos, which is something objective and not according to one’s own ideas alone. Truth and justice are eventually grounded on being. Here marks the beginning of western philosophy. Ontology or metaphysics comes from the Greek term ontos which means being, thus it is the study of being as being Aristotle talks of four levels of beings: Man – being capable of laughter and language (henceforth rational) Animals – capable of sense consciousness ...

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The Allegory of the Cave

fire is the sun; and the climb upward is the journey of the mind towards knowledge (Philosophy: Q&T, p.9). The Allegory of the Cave sdeals with one of the vital discussions in metaphysics: to distinguish between reality and appearance. Just like ontology, it deals with the nature of being and reality (Philosophy: Q&T, p.114). The prisoners symbolize the majority of people. Just like how the prisoners perceive the shadows as real, most people believe that everything they see, taste, hear, and smell...

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Are We a Mind, a Body or Both?

the mental or in a mind. For them, there are only brain processes and brain (92), that which are purely physical and can be explained by science. Modern Eliminativists explain Eliminativism as the view that Folk Psychology is radically false in its ontology, what things it claims exist, and its laws. Folk Psychology is a blanket term referring to any psychological theory that makes reference to intentional states, such as beliefs, desires, attitudes, etc. The Churchlands view on the issue is just: folk...

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Traditional African Religion

event in which is taking place during that part of the day. Understanding time is important in understanding the thoughts and beliefs of the African people. Understanding ontology is important as well. As defined by Webster's ontology is "a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being." Ontology is the way in which the Africans believe. Expressed ontologically, God is the origin and creator of all things. A number of societies find God to be omniscient. Omniscient...

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Ship of Theseus

metaphysical questions. A Metaphysician attempts to explain the fundamental notions by which people understand the world and its existence. The study looks closely at objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect and possibility. Ontology is the main branch of metaphysics as it investigates the main categories of being and how they relate to each other. A common discussion found in metaphysics is that things can be qualitatively identical, by sharing some properties. They can also...

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Anselm and Aquinas

God – “a being than which no greater being can be conceived.” (Anselm) Anselm understands the relationship with existence and reference it can be seen in his argument makes a reliable point of God’s existence without connecting him directly to an ontology theory. He explains the difference between "existence in the understanding" and "existence in reality". Anselm says when something exists in a person’s understanding it just means that the person has the general notion of the thing. Anselm also says...

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Idealism vs Realism

in the fields of ethics, morality, aesthetics, and value. Some forms of idealism, like that of Berkeley, are often contrasted with materialism. Some idealists, like Spinoza, are monists as opposed to dualist, again like Descartes, or pluralist ontologies. Plato is called an idealist because of his theory of Forms or doctrine of Ideas, which are "ideal" in the dictionary sense. Most interpreters, ancient and modern, hold that Plato does not describe the Forms as being in any mind, instead he describes...

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Bootstrapping Ontologies for Web Services

Bootstrapping Ontologies for Web Services Aviv Segev, Member, IEEE, and Quan Z. Sheng, Member, IEEE Abstract—Ontologies have become the de-facto modeling tool of choice, employed in many applications and prominently in the semantic web. Nevertheless, ontology construction remains a daunting task. Ontological bootstrapping, which aims at automatically generating concepts and their relations in a given domain, is a promising technique for ontology construction. Bootstrapping an ontology based on a set...

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Ontology and God

* Descartes’ Proofs for God’s Existence * www.prshockley.org * In sum, 3 Arguments for God’s Existence are used by Descartes in Meditations: 1. The argument for the existence of God from the fact that I have an idea of Him (1st proof in Meditation 3). 2. The argument from my own existence. Here it is argued that a cause more perfect than myself must be assumed to explain my coming into being and my continued existence (2nd proof in Meditation 3). 3. The Ontological Argument for God’s...

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Patterns of Knowing

definitions. Ontology and Epistemology are both branches of philosophy which try to describe the existence of an entity. They are terms regarding knowing and knowledge. Epistemology considers the history of knowledge that investigates the nature, kinds, origin, scope, methods and knowledge development limitations (Meleis, 2012). “Ontology is the branch of philosophy that deals with understanding being, existence, or reality. Thus, as applied to nursing and nursing science, ontology explores the nature...

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E3 Value

Modeling strategic partnerships using the e3value ontology A field study in the banking industry Carol Kort Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email: cdkort@cs.vu.nl Jaap Gordijn Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email: gordijn@cs.vu.nl 1 Introduction Companies increasingly form networked value constellations to jointly satisfy a complex need. Well known examples include the networked business model of Cisco Systems [Tapscott, D., Ticoll, D., & Lowy, A., 2000] and...

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Semantic relations

es b E-mail: pleon@ugr.es c E-mail:japrieto@ugr.es 1 Current Issues in Language Studies 1(2009)/P. Faber, P. León, J. Prieto/ Semantic Relations, Dynamicity, and Terminological Knowledge Bases terminology, semantic relations, frame, ontology, specialized language Keywords 1. Introduction The linguistic and cognitive shift in Terminology has led to a more discourse-centred approach with a focus on how terms are actually used in texts (Temmerman and Kerremans, 2003). This shift...

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No One

43 Int. J. Reasoning-based Intelligent Systems, Vol. n, No. m, 2008 Commonsense Knowledge, Ontology and Ordinary Language Walid S. Saba American Institutes for Research, 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007 USA E-mail: wsaba@air.org Abstract: Over two decades ago a “quite revolution” overwhelmingly replaced knowledgebased approaches in natural language processing (NLP) by quantitative (e.g., statistical, corpus-based, machine learning) methods. Although it is our firm...

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Antonomy

that thought about the more we use opposite words together in a sentence or in a conversation, the more likely they are to become antonyms, the authors leads us in to the second question about "better" antonyms. This is often a question about the ontology of the words, or the meaning of words as they are in people's minds, not as they are in the external world. Social and environmental aspects are something to take in to the equation here. So to sum things up, antonyms is a pretty difficult area...

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Marcuse's critique of Jean Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness is discussed, and a response is offered from the perspective of a critical rereading of Sartre's text.

situation and "become the stable and lasting foundation of his own being" ; this process, by its very nature, also results in an intractable conflict. Sartre's ontology is corrupted, according to Marcuse, through the approach he takes, midway through the book, to the "existence of others," after which "his philosophy has left the realm of pure ontology and moved within the ontic-empirical world." Sartre's mistake is in interpreting the "fundamental conflict" he observes in human relationships as an ontological...

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The Lsd Drug

testing: an incapacity to distinguish between internal and external world • Increased fantasy production • Diffusion of experience into feelings of ‘oneness’ with the world and cosmos • Speculative concern with mysteries of Being (ontology) and meaning The LSD “trip” timeline Onset: Euphoria (approximately 30 minutes) Colours appear delineated and moving objects start to ‘trail’. The Sensory Perceptual Plateau (1-2 hours) Development of more intense effects, and, in rare cases...

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Explain Descartes Version Of The Ontological Argument

Explain Descartes version of the ontological argument? Ontology is the branch of philosophy that explores the whole concept of existence. Thomas Aquinas argued that a reason as to why the ontological argument does not work is that we do not know what God is, Descartes disagreed with this. Descartes, who was a very influential mathematician, philosopher and scientist, believed, similarly to Anselm and Plato previously, that human beings mind’s are imprinted with concepts such as equality, cause...

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Summary of Philosophies of Education

Philosophies of Education |Philosophy |Cosmology |Theology |Anthropology |Ontology |Epistemology |Ethics |Aesthetics | |Existentialism |Believe in the freedom to choose. |- The universe and humans exist during the same time. | -Existence precedes essence: there is no God and no fixed human nature | -Man is entirely free and wholly responsible for himself-point of awareness. | -It is we ourselves who shape our lives.  -Humans have a materialistic relation-ship with nature and society. | -How...

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Heidegger and Practice

claims concerned with practice. In radical contrast to Kemmis, in his reading of Aristotle’s pragmatism Heidegger takes into the world what we variously do in practice, and gives it a distinct twist with his continual focus upon the phenomenological ontology of beings; that multiplicity of entities which unfold in their possibilities in everything we do. Moreover, for Heidegger what is ‘carried together’ with everything we do, and what created for him the locus of his entire work, is being, which he...

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Xoxo

" Quite the contrary, he was still answering the problems of Plato and his ancestors and making use of their answers as well. We can divide Aristotle's metaphysics into an ontology and a cosmology. For beginning philosophers, the latter is far more interesting, the former extremely difficult.   Aristotle's ontology is based upon the all-important notion of substance, his technical term for the Pre-Socratic conceptions of the ultimate "stuff" of the universe. He says, "The question that was...

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Explain Anselm's ontological argument.

formulation of the ontological argument. The writings of the ontological argument in The Proslogian were Anselm’s reflections of the passage Psalm 14:1 “Fools say in their hearts ’There is no god’” and directs his argument at the ‘fools’ From this passage. Ontology means the study of being so therefore Anselm’s argument is formulated to prove the existence of god through the study of being. Anselm formulates 2 ontological arguments for the existence of god. Anselm’s first argument is based on three premises...

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What Heidegger Means by Being-in-the-World

This ownmost non-relational possibility is at the same time the uttermost one." In the first division of "Being and Time", Heidegger worked out his account of Being-in-the-world and used it to ground an insightful evaluation of long-established ontology and epistemology. For Heidegger, human beings are never directly in the world except by way of being in some particular circumstance; it is Dasein that is Being-in-the-world (Dreyfus 1991)....

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Understanding Organization Theory

important philosophical choices of ontology and epistemology. Ontology is concerned with how you choose to define what is real, whereas epistemology is concerned with how you form knowledge and establish criteria for evaluating it. Thinking about ontology and epistemology is a useful place to begin because these philosophical choices explain basic differences between the perspectives of organization theory. Although they are difficult philosophical issues, by giving ontology and epistemology some attention...

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Postmodernist Fiction

History and criticism. Contents Acknowledgments Preface x XI Part One: Preliminaries 1: From modernist to postmodernist fiction: change of dominant The dominant Beckett Robbe-Grillet Fuentes Nabokov Coover Pynchon 2: Some ontologies of fiction Heterocosm "The old analogy between Author and God" Ingarden Possible worlds The social construction of (un)reality 3 6 12 13 15 18 19 21 26 27 29 30 3336 Part Two: Worlds 3: In the zone How to build a zone Ohio, Oz,...

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Knowledge Management Tools: Component Technologies

tools Ontology and Taxonomy Grubber (1993) defines ontology as “a formal explicit of shared conceptualism”. It helps us on preventing wide variations on understanding or perspective to the same subject. Therefore, we have to developed ‘ontology’ to improve our level of information organization, management, and understanding. In the context of KM tools, the term ontology is often used interchangeability with taxonomy. To clarify the distinction, it’s important to recognize that an ontology is overall...

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Paper

"hypothesis" of it is correct. So one way to find an unhypothetical foundation of knowledge is the find an object of knowledge which is independent of the question of its being.(The reader is referred to Kenneth Sayre's excellent work, Plato's Late Ontology, Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983, for a discussion of the complex considerations concerning these topics.) The suggestion that the One would be the starting point of numbers, natures, and knowledge whether or not it has Being allows a kind of understanding...

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Mr Md Faruq

worrisome, nor is the case of DobbySock and JustLikeDS. The upshot of these examples is that proliferation of qualitative duplicates is inevitable for a variety of abstract artifacts across the board. If (like many theorists) we still want our ontology to make room for musical and literary works, social and legal institutions, games, words within a lan- 15 Whether or not we take the ordered sequence of propositions to exist timelessly depends in part on our view of propositions, an issue on...

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A Framework of Information Systems Concepts

concepts and the basis for a suitable terminology. What are the Major Global Achievements of the FRISCO Work? The FRISCO report justifies the information system area scientifically by placing it in a more general context, comprising philosophy, ontology, semiotics, system science, organisation science, as well as computer science. Thereby, the concepts of the information system area become "rooted" or "anchored", that is, related to concepts of these other areas. The FRISCO report provides a...

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aristotle vs. plato

 Aristotle VS. Plato Epistemology, “theory of knowledge”, is the logic of getting to the metaphysics. Ontology, “theory of being”, is the very distinct part of metaphysics, where definitional divisions appear even larger than in metaphysics itself. “Ontos”, a Greek word, which means “being” and “episteme”, is a Greek word, which means “knowledge” of the highest, most reliable and certain kind. For Plato, there exist two worlds: the ever changing material world and the eternal world of...

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Spinoza vs Descartes on God

Abstract and Referential Ontology: Descartes Versus Spinoza on the Existence of God. The concept of God is central to the development of Cartesian and Spinozan philosophy. Although both philosophers employ an ontological argument for the existence and necessity of God the specific nature of God differs greatly with each account. While Descartes suggests a Judeo-Christian concept of God, Spinoza argues a more monistic deity similar to that of the Hindu tradition. The most significant difference...

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Alamgir Hussain Report

 Ontology Development for Online Food Ordering System Management Author: Md. Alamgir Hussain ID: 1071553011 Supervisor: Dr Joanna Isabelle OLSZEWSKA Date: 18 March, 2011 School of Computing & Engineering A Project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MSc Information Systems Management in the School of Computing & Engineering at the University of Huddersfield Acknowledgement Throughout the course of completing this project...

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Ontology vs. Epistemology

Ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist. What do we know? What are we certain of? What can we prove? What is the nature of existence? Epistemology is the study of knowledge. How do we know what we know? How can we establish truth and certainty? Are their limits to what we can know based on how we come to know it? These epistemological questions when combined with ontological questions have philosophers pondering what exists and how we know it exists....

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Ontology

Online Interactive Home Work Grading System John JENQ Department of Computer Science, Montclair State University Montclair, NJ 07039, USA Micheal ALEXISPONNIAH Citigroup, 250 West Street,6th FL, New York, NY 10013, USA Irina ASHKENAZI The Hertz Corporation, 225 Brae Boulevard, Park Ridge, NJ 07656, USA and Ramazan BURUS Bluestone Consulting Firm, 2001 Route 46 Suite 310 Parsippany NJ 07054, USA ABSTRACT In recent years, World Wide Web usage for teaching and learning has increased...

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Ontology of Man, Seen by Different Philosophers

The philosophy of man is an intricate and multidimensional system involving complex problems rationalized by theoretical ideals. In writing the Oration on the Dignity of Man, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola approaches this study universally, wherein, humanism and the worth and dignity of the populace is affirmed. Saint Augustine's Confessions attempts to explain the truth and philosophies of man, but does so with a different approach, referring to man as a product of society...

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Ontology Base-Interface Thai Herbs Search System (Thss): Data and User Management Module

Ontology base-Interface Thai Herbs Search System (THSS): Data and user management module Mr. Chiun-Yi Chen Assoc. Prof. Kitsana Waiyamai, Ph.D. Bachelor of Engineering (Software and Knowledge Engineering) Kasetsart University TEL :( +66) 2-942-8555 Ext. 1430 FAX: (+66) 2-579-6245 E-mail: (fengknw@ku.ac.th) Abstract Thai herbs have been used more and more in many application fields such as medical, health and cosmetic. However, Thai herbs are stored and collected in several types of...

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What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of a Multi-Perspective Approach to Understanding Organization? in Answering the Question You Will Need to Engage with the Nature of the Various Perspectives and How They Enable

perspectives influence the way you and others experience by interpreting and shape organization realities. You will become a more effective member of any organization to join. Let me evaluate with the two important philosophical choices of ontology and epistemology. Ontology concerns our assumtion about reality which you don't question whether all this things are real or have an existence undependent because of you (cited from pg12) pjilosphers sometimes refers to these as existential question because they...

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Organisation Theory

explain about Modernism and Critical Theory out of the four perspectives. Framework In understanding the nature of modernist organization theory, Michael Reed introduced two different metatheoretical terms which are ontology and epistemology (Reed, 1992). The modernist ontology is objectivism and the reality can be observes under see, touch, taste, hear and smell. For an instance, individual and organizations can be rational and structured based on people’s knowledge of it. Next, the modernist...

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Theme Inference Throught Detection and Extraction of Domain Specific Events

logic-unification - forward chaining -backward chaining –resolution - Production rules – frames - semantic networks - scripts. UNIT II Ontology Development: Description logic-taxonomies -Topic maps – Ontology -Definition - expressing ontology logically - ontology representations – XML – RDF –RDFS – OWL – OIL - ontology development for specific domain - ontology engineering - Semantic web services. UNIT III Information Retrieval Modeling: Information retrieval – taxonomy-formal characterization...

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Introduction to Christology

of Christ, Which is Prior? Christ and Myth I. Introduction to this Study A. Relation to other Theological Study 1 Theology Proper (above) 2 Man and Sin (below) Three Issues Addressed Here 1 Faith and History/Reason 2 Ontology vs. Function 3 Myth and the Nature of the Biblical Witness II. Search for the Historical Jesus Key Players: Strauss, Renan, Harnack Harnack’s Presuppositions NT and Superstitious Culture Ancient Miracle Claims are...

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Elements of Philosophy

Noemi Faith A. Reyes OC199 2008-30806 Prof. Villar ONTOLOGY | EPISTEMOLOGY | METHODOLOGY | TELEOLOGY | -“…is from the Greek and means the study of the ontos or of the one, the universe. It is the study of those universal concepts which apply to everything, as well as those specific concepts which apply to the most substantial dimensions of Being (Fox,1999, p.1).”-“…comes from the Greek Ontologia and means “talking” (-logia) about being (on/onto). It is a philosophical...

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Beijing Sammies

| |22 private final static String uri = "file:/c:/"; | 3. To add model in the ontology list, go to database and table and insert new row with these values. • Ontology id: (Auto increment) • Ontology Name: Blank Model • Ontology Description: AGROVOC Concept Server Workbench - Blank AOS Module • Database URL: jdbc:mysql://:3306/?requireSSL=false&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8 ...

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maris

similarly if their accomplishments touched only a section of the community, their reverence will be limited to that section of the community. This therefore indicates that in the African ontology there are grades and levels in the abode of the ancestors. 4.2 THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF ANCESTORS In African ontology, ancestor are ascertained by certain characteristic features. Onyedinma avers that “ancestors are disembodied spirits.....not all disembodied spirits are ancestors but those who posses...

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Structuration theory

leaves each level more accessible to analysis via the ontologies which constitute the human social experience: space and time and thus, in one sense, 'history'. His aim was to build a broad social theory which viewed basic domain of study of the social sciences neither the experience of the individual actor, not the existence of any form of societal totality, but social practices ordered across space and time.  His focus on abstract ontology accompanied a general and purposeful neglect of epistemology or...

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Post Modernism Modernism

assumptions underlying each of these perspective should be examined and a good place to begin is with the philosophical choices of ontology and epistemology. Ontology is concerned with how you choose to define what is real whereas epistemology is concerned with how you form knowledge and establish criteria for evaluating it. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) Modernism Modernist ontology is objectivism where it belief in objective, external reality whose existence is independent of our knowledge of it whereas...

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Political Economy

achieve a desired outcome, through whatever means . Approaches to the study of Politics Ontology- the nature of being Epistemology- How do you know what we know? Theoretical – concept & idea Empirical- Evidence, observation History- both theory and experience Methodology- How do we exactly know what we know MAKE A MATRIX OF THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES USING THE FOLLOWING: Nature Ontology Epistemology Methodology Studying Politics requires that we use approaches Approaches...

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