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    Costs Of Production Practice Questions 1. The main difference between the short run and the long run is that: A) firms earn zero profits in the long run. B) the long run always refers to a time period of one year or longer. C) in the short run‚ one or more inputs is fixed. D) in the long run‚ only one variable can be fixed. 2. At the level of output where marginal cost equals average variable cost: A) average total cost is decreasing. B) average variable cost is decreasing

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    production function

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    any business organisation‚ achievement of efficiency in production or cost minimisation for a given production activity appear to be one of the prime concern of the managers In the manager’s effort to minimise production costs‚ the fundamental questions he or she faces are: (f) How can production be optimized or costs minimised? (g) What will be the beaviour of output as inputs increase? (h) How does technology help in reducing production costs? (i) How can the least-cost combination of inputs

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    Production Analysis

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    Production Analysis  unit 5  Unit 5  Structure  5.1  5.2  Introduction  Objectives  Meaning of production and production function  5.2.1  Uses of production function  5.2.2  Production function with one variables input case  5.2.3  Production function with two variable input  5.2.4  Long run production function  5.2.5  Economies of scale  5.2.6  Diseconomies of scale  5.2.7  Internalisation of external economies  5.2.8  Externalisation of internal diseconomies  5.2.9  Economies of scope 

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    Mass Production

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    THE ECONOMICS OF MASS PRODUCTION. The United States economy changed dramatically in the period following the Civil War. Business itself changed during this time: various ways were tried to increase the size of businesses‚ including trusts and holding companies. The average standard of living more than doubled between 1870 and 1910 and manufacturing‚ rather than agriculture‚ became businesses central feature. A major factor in this increase was the rise of big businesses and the widespread use

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    Cost of Production

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    COST OF PRODUCTION CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Types of costs 3.1 Opportunity‚ implicit and explicit costs 3.2 Fixed and variable costs 3.3 Average costs 3. Types of cost curves 4.4 Marginal cost curve 4.5 Average cost curves 4. Costs in Short run and in the Long run 5.6 Short run 5.7 Long run 5.8 Economies of scale 5. Cost analysis in the real world 6.9 Economies of scope 6.10 Experiential

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    Cost of Production

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    Costs of Production July 2011 Topics to be Discussed Measuring Cost: Which Costs Matter? How do Cost Curves Behave? – Cost in the Short Run – Cost in the Long Run How to Minimize Cost? How to draw Implications for Business Strategy? Topics to be Discussed Production with Two Outputs: Economies of Scope Dynamic Changes in Costs: The Learning Curve Estimating and Predicting Cost Measuring Cost: Which Costs Matter? Accountants tend to take a retrospective view of firms’ costs‚ whereas

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    Production Function

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    PRODUCTION FUNCTION Objectives After going through this unit‚ you should be able to: familiarise with the concepts and rules relevant for production decision analysis; understand the economics of production; understand the set of conditions required for efficient production. Introduction to Microbes Structure 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Introduction Production Function Production Function with one Variable Input Production Function with two Variable Inputs The Optimal Combination

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    Production Theory

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    PRODUCTION THEORY AND THEORY OF COSTS Production and Production Theory Production refers to the transformation of inputs into outputs (or products) An input is a resource that a firm uses in its production process for the purpose of creating a good or service. Most resources are lumped into three categories: - Land - Labor - Capital The two kinds of inputs: Fixed vs. Variable Inputs Fixed inputs -resources used at a constant amount in the production of a commodity. Variable inputs

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    Cost of Production

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    Ralph T. Byrns Modern Microeconomics 2001 © Chapter 8 The Costs of Production Production and Costs Costs in the Short Run Fixed Costs Implicit Costs Explicit Costs Variable Costs Average Costs Marginal Costs The Symmetry Between Production and Costs Total Product and Total Cost Curves Geometry of Average and Marginal Costs Curves Average Physical Product and Average Variable Costs Marginal Physical Product and Marginal Cost Costs in the Long Run Isocost Lines Cost Minimization The

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    1. Define production. What are the factors of production?  Define production: Production means the creation of Utility. Through production inputs are converted into output which can satisfy or meet wants or demands. So production is a process of transforming inputs into useable outputs. Utilities are created in three forms such as (i) Changing the form (ii) changing time and (iii) changing place. Example: Wood in a forest generally has no utility to a consumer but cutting the wood‚ changing

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    According to Sloman‚ (2004)‚ production is the transformation of inputs into outputs by firms in order to earn profit. Production can be divided into two types‚ that is short-run production and long-run production. Production in the short-run is the production period of time over which at least one factor is fixed as production in the long-run is the production period of time long enough for all factors to be varied. As mentioned by Sloman‚ (2004)‚ production in the short-run is subject to diminishing

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    Production Function

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    What is Production Function? Definition and Explanation: ‚ Production of goods requires resources or inputs. These inputs are called factors of production named as land‚  labor‚ capital and organization. A rational producer is always interested that he should get the maximum output from the set of resources or inputs available to him. He would like to combine these inputs in a technical efficient manner so that he obtains maximum desired output of goods. The relationship between the inputs and

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    Cost of Production Fixed costs are those that do not vary with output and typically include rents‚ insurance‚ depreciation‚ set-up costs‚ and normal profit. They are also called overheads. Variable costs are costs that do vary with output‚ and they are also called direct costs. Examples of typical variable costs include fuel‚ raw materials‚ and some labour costs. An example Production costs Consider the following hypothetical example of a boat building firm. The total fixed costs‚ TFC‚ include

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    No‚ that’s Leontief production functions. (d) none of the above 3. Suppose a firm’s production technology is Leontief. If the ratio of the price of C labor to the price of capital decreases by 10%‚ how does the ratio of the cost-minimizing amount of capital and labor change? (a) The ratio will increase‚ due to higher capital. (b) The ratio will increase‚ due to lower labor. (c) The ratio will not change. (d) The ratio will decrease. 4. Mr. Larson’s production function is 0.1J½L¾

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    3.2 PRODUCTION FUNCTION OR INPUT-OUTPUT RELATIONSHIP SHORT RUN AND LONG RUN PRODUCTION FUNCTION Production function may be defined as the functional relationship between physical inputs that’s factors of production (land‚ labour etc) and physical outputs that is quantity of goods produced. Thus the production function expresses the relationship between quantity of output and the quantities of various inputs used in production. The physical relationship between a firm’s physical input and output

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    Q1. Of the following production functions‚ which exhibit increasing‚ constant‚ or decreasing returns to scale? a. F(K‚L) = K2 L b. F(K‚L)=10K + 5L c. F(K‚L)= KL.5 Q2. Suppose the process of producing lightweight parkas by Polly’s Parkas is described by the function q=10K8 (L-40).2 Where q is the number of parkas produced‚ K the n umber of computerized stitching-machine hours and L the number of person-hours of labor. In addition to capital and labor‚ $10 worth of raw materials

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    Question: Consider the following short-run production function (where L = variable input‚ Q = output): Q = 10L – 0.5L2 Suppose that output can be sold for $10 per unit. Also assume that the firm can obtain as much of the variable input (L) as it needs at $20 per unit. a. b. c. Determine the marginal revenue product function. Determine the marginal factor cost function. Determine the optimal value of L‚ given that the objective is to maximize profits. Question: The Blair Company’s three assembly

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    Role of consumers: - consumers: all individ.s in ec. that consume goods and services to satisfy needs and wants - consumer sovereignty: refers to the fact that patterns of consumers spending determine patterns of production. Through spending dec. consumers express their preferences. Factors influencing individual consumer choice: Income: disposable income – after tax (main determinant on consumer spending) More income‚ more demand for good and services But APS

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    Production Cost Analysis

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    Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems 1. Jennifer Trucking Company operates a large rig transportation business in Texas that transports locally grown vegetables to San Diego‚ California. The company owns 5 large rigs and hires local drivers paid fixed salaries monthly‚ regardless of the number of trips or tons of cargo that each driver transports each month. The below table presents details about the number of drivers and the total cargo transported by the company at different

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    Economics Mcq

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    MCQ’S ON APPLICATION OF THEORY OF PRODUCTION IN MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING- 1. Production efficiency: A. Occurs when consumers derive the greatest utility from the Purchase of goods and services. B. Answers the three basic economic questions of what‚ how‚ and for whom. C. Refers to least cost production technology. 2. Which of the following represent scarce productive resources? A. Land‚ technology‚ labour‚ organizational skills. B. Land‚ labour‚ investment‚ managerial

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