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    Aldehydes and Ketones

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    Aldehyde and Ketone 1. ALDEHYDE  Definition: An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a formyl group. This functional group‚ with the structure R-CHO‚ consists of a carbonyl center (a carbon double bonded to oxygen) bonded to hydrogen and an R group‚ which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group without R is called the aldehyde group or formyl group. Aldehydes differ from ketones in that the carbonyl is placed at the end of a carbon skeleton rather than between two carbon atoms

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    Aldehydes and Ketones

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    ALDEHYDES AND KETONES Abstract Aldehydes and Ketones have certain characteristics in common. However‚ both couldn’t exist in the same compound. Some test for the presence of aldehyde was made for this experiment. These tests includes Tollen’s test‚ Benedict’s Test‚ 2-4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and Schiff’s test. All the tests conduted yielded same results‚ that is‚ formalin and benzaldehyde are aldehyde-containing compounds while acetone is a ketone. On the other hand‚ effect of acid concentration

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    Analysis of Alcohols‚ Aldehydes and Ketones Karl Wayne Mancao‚ Raphaell Mordeno‚ Andres Pastrana III*‚ and Shannen Peñaverde Department of Biology‚ University of Santo Tomas‚ Manila‚ Philippines Abstract The proponents have done several tests for identifying alcohols‚ aldehydes and ketones. These tests are Dichromate test‚ Tollens test‚ Lucas test‚ DNPH test and Iodoform test. Three samples got positive result in dichromate test and one in Tollens test. Lucas test got one sample that has

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    D. REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (By: Mary Deo Luigi J. Mabunay 1N-3) Objective: To determine the reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones when combined with Sodium Hydroxide. Process: * Obtain 5 clean and dry test tubes * Put 2mL of 40% NaOH solution to test tubes 1‚ 2 and 3 and on test tubes 4 and 5‚ put 10% NaOH solution * Add 10 drops of the following solution: * Tube 1: formaldehyde * Tube 2: benzaldehyde * Tube 3: acetaldehyde

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    Abstract: A qualitative analysis experiment was conducted to determine the identity of an unknown aldehyde or ketone. The tests include a Tollens test‚ a Schiff test‚ an iodoform test‚ and a derivative melting point test. The data of the first three tests was inconclusive. The final derivative melting point test was utilized to successfully determine that the unknown was the ketone‚ Propiophenone. Introduction: Qualitative analysis is a method or series of methods used to determine the

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    E. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Sodium Hydroxide Objectives: To know the reactions of aldehydes and ketones with sodium hydroxide a) State the function of Sodium Hydroxide in the test. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is the oxidizing agent. b) What are the principles involved in the test? What is its purpose? Cannizzaro reaction is a reaction that uses a strong base‚ such as sodium hydroxide‚ which results to the formation of a carboxylic acid (or its corresponding salt) and an alcohol

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    Reactions of Carbonyls-Aldehyde/Ketone Analysis: Introduction: The carbonyl group is a rich source of many important reactions in organic chemistry‚ with two fundamental properties that are primarily responsible for its diverse chemistry. The first is the polarization of the. Carbon-oxygen pi bond‚ owing to the relatively high electro negativity. The second property of a carbonyl function is to increase the acidity of the alpha-hydrogen atoms‚ which are the hydrogen’s

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    Laboratory #6 Qualitative Tests for Carbonyls: Aldehydes vs. Ketones Introduction Various chemical tests identifying ketones and aldehydes are used in this experiment in order to identify an unknown carbonyl compound. The tests used are: 2‚4-dinitrophenylhydrazone test‚ Tollen’s Test‚ Benedict’s Test‚ Chromic Acid Test‚ aka Bordwell-Wellman Test‚ Schiff’s Test‚ and Iodoform Test. These classification tests provide results based on color change or formation of precipitation‚ which is then used

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    on the aromatic aldehyde affect the E/Z ratio of products that form. In this experiment‚ a nitro group was used as the substituent in the ortho‚ meta and para positions‚ with benzaldehyde as the control. Each of the four aldehydes reacted with (carbethoxymethylene) triphenylphosphorane to produce ethyl cinnamate‚ ethyl-3-(2-nitrophenyl)acrylate‚ ethyl-3-(3-nitrophenyl)acrylate‚ and ethyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)acrylate. The prediction was the closer the substituent was to the aldehyde‚ the greater the

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    Aldehydes and Ketones

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    Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Peter Konn Mountain State University Chemistry 302 7/31/12 Abstract This paper looks to delve into the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. The endeavor involved looking into the way their bonding influences how they react. It also considers the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds‚ chemical structures and formulas. The paper also looked to

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    Functional Group Analysis

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    August 24‚ 2012; Date Submitted: September 19‚ 2012 Results and Discussion Aldehydes and ketones both contain the carbonyl group – a group in which a carbon atom has a double bond to oxygen. The carbonyl group in aldehydes is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom‚ and in ketones it is bonded to two carbon atoms. The general formula for an aldehyde is And the general formula for a ketone is Aldehydes and ketones have a trigonal planar arrangement of groups around the carbonyl carbon

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    Wittig Reaction Lab Report

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    Introduction Discovered by Georg Wittig in 1954‚ the Wittig reaction is a robust organic synthesis method for preparing stereospecific alkenes. In general‚ Wittig reactions involve an aldehyde or ketone and a Wittig reagent (triphenylphosphonium ylide) and result in the formation of an alkene product and triphenylphosphine oxide (side product). Stereospecific alkene products can be synthesized by adjusting the reaction reagents and conditions. In the 60 years since the Wittig reaction was discovered

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    Aldol Lab

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    reagent directly into the solution. Shake the mixture A green bluish green precipitate appears within 1 min if the unknown compound is an aldehyde (Aliphatic aldehydes give precipitates with 15 s whereas aromatic aldehydes usually take 30-60s. Acetone and other keytones oxidize in this solution only after 2-3 mins. Place 2 drops of the unknown aldehyde and 0.5mL of ethanol in a 10 X 75 nm test tube Add water dropwise‚ shaking after each drop until the

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    Silver Mirror Experiment

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    determine whether a carbonyl containing compound is an aldehyde or a ketone. An aldehyde is a compound containing a formyl group (CHO).The experiment involves diamminesilver complex and a chemical reagent (also known as “Tollens’ reagent”) which in this case is glucose. In a successful experiment a reflective silver metal should precipitate‚ with characteristics identical to that of a mirror’‚ this indicates that there was a presence of aldehydes in the reaction. If no reflective silver surface is seen

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    of organic synthesis‚ separation‚ purification‚ structural characterization by instrumental analysis. Train the ability to solve the practical problems. Principle: Aromatic aldehydes can have aldol reaction with aldehydes or ketones which have α-hydrogen atoms‚ dehydrate to form high yield of α‚β-unsaturated aldehydes or α‚β-unsaturated ketones under catalytic of alkalis. These kinds of reactions are called Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction. It is an important approach to grow the carbon

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    Synthesis of Cinnamaldehyde

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    Vidallon‚ Mark Louis P. Date Performed: February 20‚ 2012 CHEM44.1 2L Date Submitted: March 12‚ 2012 MIXED-ALDOL CONDENSATION Synthesis of Cinnamaldehyde I. Introduction Cinnamaldehyde‚ cinnamic aldehyde or 3-phenyl-2-propenal is the major constituent of cinnamon oil‚ extracted from several species of Cinnamomum (C. verum‚ C. burmanii‚ C. cassia)‚ under the family Lauraceae‚ a group of evergreen trees. Cinnamon bark (particularly C. verum) yields 0.4-0.8% oil‚ which contains 60-80% cinnamaldehyde

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    Synthesis of Adipic Acid

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    Experiment 8: Synthesis of Adipic Acid Performed November 8th & 10th By Jennifer Seitz Organic Chemistry 344 Section 803 Fall 2011 Objective: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize adipic acid from cyclohexanol via an oxidation reaction that was catalyzed by sulfuric acid. Purity of the product was assessed by measuring the melting point. Physical Properties/Structures: Name | Formula | Molecular Weight (g/mol) | Boiling Point (0C) | Melting Point(0C) | Density(g/mL)

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    lala

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    addition occurs when an aldehyde forms an aldol in equilibrium. Usually two molecules of aldehydes combine with a base two form the aldol‚ which is a compound with an aldehyde with a hydroxyl group attached. During this reaction‚ the enolate ion of the aldehyde‚ which is the nucleophile‚ adds to the carbonyl group of the aldeyde to from the alkoxide ion. The alkoxide ion abstracts a proton from water to yield an aldol. Aldol condensation is when two molecules of an aldehyde combine to eventually form

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    group tests test functional group positive result clear purple solution turns to brown precipitate Baeyer test alkenes and alkynes Bromine test alkenes and alkynes brown color disappears Dinitrophenylhydrazine test aldehydes and ketones yellow to orange red precipitate Ferrox test any functional group containing oxygen reddish-purple color Hydroxamate test amides and esters red-purple color appears Iodoform test methyl ketones yellow precipitate

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    The Aldehyde Enigma

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    Esmeralda Curiel Organic Chemistry November 11‚ 2014 Experiment 62 – The Aldehyde Enigma INTRODUCTION In the Cannizaro reaction an aldehyde is simultaneously reduced into its primary alcohol form and also oxidized into it ’s carboxylic acid form. The purpose of this experiment is to isolate‚ purify and identify compounds 1 and 2 which contain 4-chlorobenzaldehyde‚ methanol‚ and aqueous potassium hydroxide. Compounds 1 and 2 are purified by crystallization. . The purified product will be characterized

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