Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones
Mountain State University
This paper looks to delve into the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. The endeavor involved looking into the way their bonding influences how they react. It also considers the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds, chemical structures and formulas. The paper also looked to establish the relationship and differences between natural butter and synthetic butter, natural raspberry and synthetic raspberry, and vanilla extract and pure vanilla. Finally, this paper endeavored to identify and a detailed description of the type of reactions that take place in Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions as well as Grignard reagents.
Flavoring agents are considered the largest compounds used as food additives. Beverage and food applications of flavoring agents include spice blends, fruits, nuts, wine flavoring agents, and vegetables. They may modify or magnify the aroma or taste of the intended product. There exists a wide variety of flavoring agents used for numerous purposes (Cooper, 2009). Examples of flavoring agents include alcohols, esters, protein hydrolysates, aldehydes, and ketones. Aldehydes and Ketones are connected from the premise that they both possess a carbonyl group C=O. The main difference however is that the carbonyl carbon of ketones is bound by two carbon atoms. On the other hand, the carboxyl carbon of aldehydes is bound by one hydrogen atom. Hence, aldehydes place the carbonyl group at the terminal carbon end, while the ketone carbonyl group is always internal. Typically, simple aldehydes have an irritating and unpleasant odor. One flavoring agent made from aldehydes is Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde. This compound is largely used in fixation of fragrances (Bloch, 2006). In addition, aldehydes are also used in commercial product fragrances such as deodorants, detergents, fabric softeners, shampoo, and soaps.
Another flavoring agent made from aldehydes is C8 Aldehyde (Octanol). This compound is also known as caprylaldehyde or octyl aldehyde. Flavoring agents made from this compound are used in detergents, soaps, as well as creams and light fragrances requiring a citrus character. It is used as a flavoring agent in foods such as baked goods, gelatins, and ice cream. The last example of flavoring agent used from aldehydes is Cinnamic Aldehyde. This compound is used to make flavoring agents where cinnamon characters are desired. Though it can be extracted from cassia and cinnamon bark oils, Cinnamic Aldehyde is normally produced synthetically. In the United States and Europe, Cinnamic Aldehyde is mostly used in bakery goods, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash and candy. Primarily, Cinnamic Aldehyde is unsaturated, and this makes it easy to react for creating many compounds that are in turn used in numerous fragrance compositions (Cooper, 2009).
One flavoring agent made from ketones is acetone. Acetone accounts for the few compounds that exhibit infinite solubility in water as well as the capability of dissolving numerous organic compounds. This quality allows acetone to be removed when it is no longer needed due to its low boiling point. It is considered the most important industrial solvent and is used in products such as varnishes, resins, paints, nail polish removers, and coatings. Another ketone flavoring agent is Methyl ethyl ketone. This compound exists both in outdoor and indoor air. Methyl ethyl ketone in the air is produced through the photo oxidation of air pollutants such as certain hydrocarbons including butane. Primarily, ethyl ketone is implemented as a solvent in processes that involve cellulose acetate, resins, gums, and cellulose nitrate. Methyl ethyl ketone is also implemented in the rubber industry, paraffin wax production, glues and paint removers (Cooper,...
References: Arlt, W., Gmehling, J., & Onken, U. (2009). Aldehydes and ketones, ethers. Frankfurt am Main: Dechema.
Bloch, D. R. (2006). Organic chemistry demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cooper, J. H. (2009). Flavoring agents of aldehydes and ketones. Chicago.
Gmehling, J., & Onken, U. (2004). Aldehydes and ketones. (Vapor-liquid equilibrium data collection.) Frankfurt am Main: DECHEMA.
Sittig, M. (2008). Polyacetal resins, aldehydes, and ketones. Park Ridge, N.J: Noyes Development Corp.
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