Analysis of Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones
Karl Wayne Mancao, Raphaell Mordeno, Andres Pastrana III*, and Shannen Peñaverde Department of Biology, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
The proponents have done several tests for identifying alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. These tests are Dichromate test, Tollens test, Lucas test, DNPH test and Iodoform test. Three samples got positive result in dichromate test and one in Tollens test. Lucas test got one sample that has a positive result, DNPH test got two positive results and Iodoform test also got two. All unknowns are identified from which of the samples are they. Alcohols, aldehydes and ketones are excellently recognized after the experiment. Introduction
Oxygen is a chemical element that most living things need. It surrounds the atmosphere and sustains our life to the fullest. It has an atomic number of eight and with a symbol O. It is also the third most abundant element in the universe and makes up the 21% in the earth atmosphere. The ozone layer that protects earth the UV lights are made up of oxygen. It was discovered by Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson on 1931. Oxygen isn’t all about a need in earth’s atmosphere but it is also very important in organic materials  .
Functional groups are specific atoms that are grouped to make up a molecule that constitutes a chemical behavior. Similar functional groups will be observed with the same chemical behavior regardless of the size of the molecule. These characteristics may be flammable, will have precipitation to a certain chemical, an acid and etc. With functional groups, the researcher can identify the chemical characteristics of an organic material. Since they are organic materials, functional groups have a backbone of carbon with attached hydrogen. There are some functional groups that can exhibit a primary (1o), secondary (2o), and tertiary (3o) ranking. These ranking is based on how many carbon are attached to the functional group. There are a lot of functional groups that can be attached to a molecule. These are alkene, alkyne, alkyl halide, alcohol, ether, thiol, sulfide, aromatic, ketone, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, acyl hydride, anhydride, amine, amide, ester, and many more. The difference between those functional groups is the kind of element that attached to them. Mostly, oxygen is common to be attached. Nevertheless, sulfur, nitrogen, and halogens are also attached .
Functional groups that contain sulfur and nitrogen are called Hetero-containing functional groups. These groups have different atoms that attached to a specific functional group. For sulfur, thiol, sulfide, disulfide, sulfenic acid, sulfinic acid, sulfonic acid, sulfonate ester, sulfoxide, thiocyanate, thione, thial, and sulfone are its functional groups. Sulfur has a valence number of six and a chemical symbol which is S. For nitrogen, amine, amide, imine, imide, azide, azocompound, cyanate, nitrate, nitrile, nitrite, nitro compound, nitroso compound, and pyridine derivative. Nitrogen has a valence number of five and a chemical symbol which is N. Another functional groups are the hydrocarbons. These functional groups only constitute carbon and hydrogen. These are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic  .
Oxygen-containing functional groups are most abundant in all functional groups. These can be divided into two sub-group and these are singly bonded oxygen and double bonded oxygen. The functional groups that are in the singly bonded oxygen are alcohols, ethers and phenols. Alcohols are like derivatives of water because of the replacement of alkyl group into OH group. It can have hydrogen bonds and very soluble to water. In the double bonded oxygen, they have a basic group that everybody exhibits and it is called, carbonyl group or keto. Under this group are aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. Aldehydes and ketones are polar but they can’t have hydrogen bonds within themselves....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document