Life Span Development Psychology
Professor J. Martins-Shannon
Exam 1 Chapters 1-4
1. Human development theories provide an explanation for patterns of stability and change. There are ranges of ideas embedded within each theory along with mechanisms for change and predictions for growth. Each theory recognizes factual aspects of human development. -Keeping this thought in mind discuss the Cognitive and Behaviorist view with 3 sound factual aspects, a brief example to exemplify each theory & overall sound personal reasoning aspects to explain the premise of the theory with regards to biological, psychological & societal emphasis for development.
Cognitive view consists of cognition which is the organizing and meaning of experiences consisting of synthesizing, justification, analyzing and reasoning, problem solving and memories. Also with wanting to achieve equilibrium, this is a balance between organized structures (motor, sensory and cognitive). When the structures are in equilibrium they deliver other effective ways of interacting with the surrounding environment. Whenever changes happen it may require an adjustment and when this happens is it called disequilibrium. It also deals with balance which is achieved through schemas (assimilation, adaptation and accommodation). Assimilation- interpreting new experiences to adjust with existing experiences, a cognitive example of this could be you move into a new neighborhood and you have attended a catholic church since you were born, but the neighborhood you just moved into everyone there is Jewish. With assimilation you would still attend your catholic church but you are will to learn more about your neighbors and their religion. Adaptation- making adjustments to schemas to balance new and old information. A Sensory example of this could be you work outside all day in the sunlight and by the time you come home from work it is dark outside. You walk into your home and your family has all the lights on, you go a turn them down a little so it’s not so bright inside, you’re making an adjustment so that you’re ok in your environment. Accommodation- Interpreting the old experiences. A motor example of this would be you deiced that you are going to go for a run but you are really unsure about it because last time you went running you tripped on a tree branch and broke your ankle. You decide that you are still going to go but you are just going to try and different way and be more aware of your surroundings. It also deals with the cognitive development of Sensorimotor which happens from Birth to 18months. Infants learn mostly through trial and error learning during this stage along with object permanence. Pre-Operational which happens from age 2 to about 5/6 years old, in this stage children can mentally signify events and objects and engage in symbolic play (i.e. playing house or school). Their thoughts and communications are normally egocentric. Egocentrism refers to the child's inability to sees different situations from others point of view.
Concrete which happens from the ages 6/7 to about 11 years old also known as the turning point in the child's cognitive development because this is where the beginning of logical or operational thought. The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. understand what rules are) but they can only really apply this logic to physical objects. Children become less egocentric and learn how to become better at conservation tasks. At this point the child will understand that even though the appearance of something changes, the thing itself does not. Formal which happens from age 12 and goes on, as adolescents enter this stage they gain the ability to think more in an abstract way and the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way. At this stage they start manipulate ideas in their head without any dependency on manipulation (formal operational stage). Behaviorist viewpoints...
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