top-rated free essay

Cypop 22

By Veronica6 Oct 15, 2012 577 Words
Cognitive Theories

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget was a cognitive theorist in 1896 – 1980. He had a way of how children learned, which was that they go through stages and sequences throughout their lives and they are active learners. He used firsthand experience to learn he also learned how to change what they learned into using behaviour.

He did not clearly state the importance of social and emotional aspects of learning and did not focus the attention on social relationships as much as other social constructivists. He took the social and emotional development for granted, and he also did not write it to detail, he wrote the importance of intellectual development. Piaget’s theory is called constructivist.

A Schema is a structured group of concepts, it can be used to point out objects, scenarios or sequences of events or relations. The original idea was proposed by philosopher Immanuel Kant as innate structures used to help us become aware of the world.

He had ideas like:

Assimilation - the process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. 

Accommodation - The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other. 

Conversation - The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different. 


Jerome Bruner

Jerome Bruner was born in 1915 and is 95yrs old and is also a cognitive theorist. The essence of Bruner’s theory is that children learn through:

➢ Doing (act out modes of learning)
➢ Imaging things that they done(iconic mode of learning) ➢ Making what they know into using codes for example talking, writing or drawing(this is called symbolic code of learning.)

The older generation can teach children and help them to learn. They can do this by using scaffolding what the child is learning in order to make it suitable for the child. This means that the child can learn anything at any age. They need the right support in order to do this. E.g. if a child drops pencil on the floor then the child is learning about gravity if the adult says you’ve dropped straight down on the floor, didn’t it let’s see if we both drop a pencil on the floor I wonder if they will both be on the floor. This would be Bruner theory.

Watson and Skinner

B.F Skinner was born in 1904 and died in 1990. He became one of the leaders of behaviourism and his work contributed immensely to experimental psychology.

John B Watson was born in 1878 and died in 1958

Operant Conditioning - Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions.

Classical Conditioning- is a learning process that occurs through a group of people between an environmental activity and is used again and other assumption of this theory are that the environment shapes behaviour and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behaviour.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • catch-22

    ...Thomas Li Ms. Cannon English III 22 September 2014 Catch-22 It is often said that absolute power corrupts absolutely. While this statement may be a little extreme, the basic concept that power corrupts those it is given to is shown and satirized in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22. Heller emphasizes the incompetence, pettiness, and corruption ...

    Read More
  • Catch 22

    ...Catch-22 is a novel that tells many stories, but the crux of the novel concerns Joseph Yossarian, a bombardier stationed at the United States Army Air Force base on the fictional Mediterranean island of Pianosa. A war rages between the Allies and the Nazis, but there is another, more important war occurring for Yossarian - a far more personal wa...

    Read More
  • Black Humor in Catch-22

    ...Black Humor in Catch-22 Joseph Heller uses black humor to express normally emotional scenarios in humorous ways in his writing. One of the clearest examples of Joseph Heller using black humor is in his novel, Catch-22. The story follows Yossarian, a man enlisted in the United States Air Force during World War II, and his frig...

    Read More
  • Catch 22 Book Review

    ...CATCH 22 BOOK REVIEW Catch 22 is a satirical novel written by Joseph Heller. It is a story about American army pilots on an island near Italy in the end of World War II in 1944. Catch 22 is a story about how the main character John Yossarian wants to get out of the army and how he tries to act insane so he can be declared unfit to fly any ...

    Read More
  • Catch-22 Readers Response

    ...Catch-22 The Reader's Response By: John O'dea I have chosen a reader response criticism for Catch-22, because I believe it gives me the freedom to interpret, and explore the book on the freest and most personal grounds. It gives me the opportunity to look inward and contemplate the thought provoking scenes occurrences in Catch-22 on my o...

    Read More
  • Cath-22

    ...Catch 22 Joseph Heller satirizes, among other matters, red tape and bureaucracy in his first novel, Catch-22. The novel concerns itself with a World War II bombardier named Yossarian who suddenly realizes the danger of his position and tries various means to extricate himself from further missions. Yossarian is driven crazy by the Germans, who k...

    Read More
  • Impotence of Language in Heller's Catch-22

    ...Alexandra Katkinová Mgr. Eva Hrkalová Introduction to Literature II (Group D) May 30, 2014 The Impotence of Language in Catch-22 The main purpose of this essay is to develop better understanding of the nature of language in Heller’s Catch-22 and analyse its role in communication among the main characters. In particular, this essay will ...

    Read More
  • Catch 22- Insanity vs. Sanity

    ...Catch-22 Insanity vs. Sanity Imagine being stuck in a box with absolutely no way out. Everyday becomes another struggle to escape only to find that you are being controlled and confined for no apparent reason. One would eventually let reality slip through their hands and welcome insanity into their empty minds. This is the life of the ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.