k-12

Topics: Education, Curriculum, Learning Pages: 6 (1444 words) Published: August 20, 2014
Curriculum Defined/described
The learning experiences and intended outcomes formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal-social competence; the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge (Tanner, D. and Tanner, L.) A plan for learning (Taba, H.); a course of study on a specific topic; includes all the learning experiences of students as planned and directed by the school to attain its educational goals (Tyler) or for which the school assumes responsibilities (Popham and Baker) That which is taught in school; set of subjects, materials and performance objectives; everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities, guidance and interpersonal relationship in the school (Oliva) A structured set of intended learning outcomes that come in the form of knowledge, skills and values; affected by important factors of program philosophy, goals, objectives, and evaluation Robert M. Hutchins views curriculum as “permanent studies” where the rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. Basic education should emphasize the 3 Rs and college education should be grounded on liberal education. Arthur Bestor as an essentialist, believes that the mission of the school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of Grammar, literature, and writing. It should also include mathematics, science, history and foreign language. According to Joseph Schwab, discipline is the sole source of curriculum. Thus in our educational system, curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we call subject areas in basic education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others. In college, discipline may include humanities, sciences, languages and many more. Joseph Schwab coined the term discipline as a ruling doctrine for curriculum development. Curriculum should consist only of knowledge which comes from disciplines which is the sole source. Thus curriculum can be viewed as a field of study. It is made up of its foundations (philosophical, historical, psychological, and sociological foundations); domains of knowledge as well as its research theories and principles. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.” Smith, Stanley and Shores defined “curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the Schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.” Marsh and Willis view curriculum as all the “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles. This is also popularly known as Tyler’s rationale. 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?(purpose of the schools) What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? (Educational experiences related to the purpose) 3. How can these experiences be effectively organized? (Organization of the Experiences) 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? (Evaluation of experiences) Hilda Taba's advocacy was commonly called as grassroots approach. These steps are as follows:

1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society 2. Formulation of learning objectives
3. Selection of learning content
4. Organization of learning content
5. Selection of learning experiences
6. Organization of learning activities
7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it

Identify whether the following statements belong to Subject-centered, Experienced/learner centered, or society/culture centered: 1. Origin trace back to golden times when the 7 liberal arts comprised the curriculum 2....
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