Outcome 1 Know how to recognise signs of abuse
1. Define the following types of abuse:
a. Physical abuse
Physical abuse can include: hitting, slapping, pushing, pinching, force feeding, kicking, burning, scalding, misuse of medication or restraint, catheterisation for the convenience of staff, inappropriate sanctions, a carer causing illness or injury to someone in order to gain attention for themselves ( this might be associated with a condition called fabricated and induced illness ).
b. Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse includes: rape and sexual assault, masturbation, indecent exposure, penetration or attempted penetration of intimate areas, sexual harassment, involving a vulnerable adult in pornography, enforced witnessing of sexual acts or sexual media, participation in sexual acts to which the vulnerable adult has not consented or could not consent or was pressured into consenting.
c. Emotional / psychological abuse
The emotional and psychological abuse includes: bullying, threats of harm or abandonment, ignoring, shouting, swearing, deprivation of contact with others, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, deprivation of privacy or dignity, lack of mental stimulation.
d. Financial abuse
Financial abuse can include: theft, fraud, exploitation, pressure in connection with wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions, the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits.
e. Institutional abuse
The key factor in identifying institutional abuse is that the abuse is accepted or ignored by the organisation, or that it happens because an organisation has systems and processes that are designed for its own benefit and not those of the people using the service. For example:
People in residential settings are not given choice over day-to-day decisions such as mealtimes or bedtimes.
Freedom to go out is