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Study Guide Final

By khermansky May 06, 2014 1127 Words
Byzantine Empire

Also known as Istanbul, Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine moved capital to Constantinople. Justinian
Reigned from 527-565. Military conquests, rebuilds city, law code. From Macedonia. Adopted. Had a lot of smart people working in his administration. Retook Rome as a way to get a larger tax base. Wanted to restore religious unity, afraid Jesus was returning and wanted Rome back to the great city it was. Theodora

Justinian’s wife. “Dancer” might have been a prostitute. Co-ruler of the Empire. Shrewd negotiator. During riots in Constantinople she told Justinian he needed to take care of his city. Hagia Sophia

Justinian restored many buildings. Built many news ones. Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) Biggest most beautiful Catholic church in the world at the time. Roman Law Code
Complicated, unorganized. Organized and explained Roman Law in one text. Created a model for law codes used in many countries today. Defined and explained terms. Broke down laws into either natural, civil, national. Petrine Doctrine

The Petrine Doctrine is based upon Catholic tradition, which proclaims the legitimacy and supremacy of the Pope over all other bishops of the Catholic Church.


Arab Peninsula
Seperates middle east from Africa. Hot and dry climate. Effects identity and culture of people living there. Desert with Oasis. Center for trade. Pre-Muslim Culture
Built around caravans, and tribes that function as traders. Tribal culture. Bedouin. Tribal fighting for oasis. Violent, lot of fighting internally among Arabians themselves. Mohammed
Born around 570-632. Raised in Mecca, thriving trade port. Messenger, not supposed to worship Muhammad. Both his parent’s die. Raised by Uncle who is a Bedouin trader. Grows up feeling like an outsider. Thoughtful, religiously intrigued guy, average guy. Regarded as someone you could go to with your problems or diplomatic concerns. Had a vision of the angel Gabriel, Gabriel told him he was to be an apostle to his people. Qur’an

Islamic “bible”, poem, meant to be read out loud.
Five Pillars
Shahada – statement of faith “There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet”, Salah – Prayer, Zakah – Charity, Sawm – Fasting, The Hajj - Pilgrimage Cause of the spread
Spreads by being accommodating.
Treatment of conquered
They were not killed or raped like it was usual for arab tribes to do. Conquer and then made better. Jihad
War or Battle in defense of the faith. Should be defensive. 10.Role of Women


Journey to Mecca, circling the Kaaba, great tool for enabling ideas to spread Relation with science
Scientific method, algebra, trigonometry, astronomy, basically come up with the idea of germs and bacteria. Create the hospital. Create hollow needles to remove cataracts. Baghdad
2nd center of the Islamic community. Population of a million people at the time. Filled with books, baths, libraries, scholars. All major thinking and learning came out of here. Christians, Muslims, Jews all working together. Cordoba

Conquered by Muslim expansion. In Spain. Hospitals, palaces, paved roads, libraries, running water, street lights. Cathedral at Cordoba. Alhambra
Fountains, ornate sculptures and designs.
Crusades/ consequences


Where Islam really begins to flourish. First main center of the Islamic community. Sunni
90%, 940 million. Believed Muhammad didn’t pick a successor. Imams serve mostly political role. No formal clergy. Shia
10%, 120 million. Believed Muhammad DID pick a successor. Caliphs/Imams are spiritual leaders inspired by Mohammed. Located in Iran, Iraq, Yemen Umayyad Caliphate
Main power base in Damascus, followed Mohammad. embrace Greek and Roman ideas. Abbasid Caliphate
Baghdad, culturaly progressive, embrace Greek and Roman ideas. Imbrace math, writing, literature.

400-1000 ce Early Medivial Era
was a value placed on every human being and every piece of property in the Salic Code. Also known as "man price". If property was stolen, or someone was injured or killed, the guilty person would have to pay weregild as restitution to the victim's family or to the owner of the property. Germanic tribes

Vikings, doesn't mean people from Germany, certain characteristics. culture
lived in rural, wood buildings, small little villages, very likely to not have a barn, farm animals live in the house with you, militaristic culture, leadership were warriors who are elected as leaders, mostly vegetarian diet, Monastic Life

mearly copied down old texts, not doing anything new
Benedictine Rule
73 chapters, duties of abbot, how to worship, discipline
free from local control

Faith seeking understanding, thomas aquinas, embraces reason, ennobles humanity (closer to god) Feudal Life
no effective central authority
Feudal Structure
Grant of land by a lord to a vassal for military service (40 days a year +/-) Vassals have vassals. Provided a decentralized form of government Serf Obligations
required to work % for lord, tied to the manor, church tax "tithe". life of labor, poverty, little freedom, tight village community Manorial structure
land divided into three fields, fields divided into narrow strips among peasants, fields rotated each year, system to avoid soil exhaustion Vassals
ruled their fiefs, made own laws, enforced them, settled disputes Chivalry


1000-1300 High Medivial Era
Agricultural Revolution

give people more time to do things
give people more time to do things
new harness to allow horses to plow, faster than an ox so they could plow more, again gives people more time to do things, 40% more of their fields because of horses Plow
new heavier plow, with heavier iron, that could dig deep into the ground Sickle

allow farmers to grow much more effectively
because they could farm more land, they became more wealthy and could afford more animals, which in turn means more manure, which means healthier crops Legumes
"bean" that has been introduced from the middle east, improved diet, healthier pregnancies Expanding Farmlands
cut down forests and rivers dirtied
10.Crop Specialization

11.Subsistence Farming

12.Population Increase
healthier pregnancies
13.Health Improvements
healthier pregancies
Cathedrals 1100--1400
massive, stone, dangerous, time consuming, pride of the community, house of a bishop Romanesque Cathedrals
built on the technology and understanding of the Romans, Huge, lots of pillars, barrel vaults, arches, thick walls, small windows. Little windows, benches are not important, not about you and you being comfortable built with no seating in mind, people would often stand Barrel Vaults

looks like the inside of a barrel,
Gothic Cathedrals

Ribbed vaults
arches intersect, can be further apart and higher inbetween the supports, allows for much bigger stained glass windows Flying Buttresses

Notre Dame


Stained Glass
symbolic of european progress
Church and State Relations

Cluniac Reform

Investiture Controversy

Pope Gregory VII

Henry IV

Concordat at Worms


Alexis I

Pope Urban II


Impact of Crusades

1300-1450 Late Medivial Era
13th Century Disasters

Bad Weather


Black / Bubonic Plague


Peasant Revolts

100 Years War

Weakening power of Knights

New Weapons

13. Great Western Schism

14. Avignon

15. Return to Rome

16. Catherine of Siena




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