top-rated free essay


By youngslay Aug 21, 2013 1057 Words
Brain drain (or human capital flight), is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons usually include two aspects which respectively come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may be social environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability or oppression, economic depression, health risks, etc.; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living conditions, etc.). In terms of individual reasons, there are family influence (overseas relatives), and personal preference: preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc. Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into: "the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions". Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government or other organizations. It is a parallel of capital flight, which refers to the same movement of financial capital. Brain drain is often associated with de-skilling of emigrants in their country of destination, while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled individuals. Brain Drain may also refer to a situation wherein an individual fails to complete any given task as a result of a nervous breakdown The term brain drain was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of "scientists and technologists" to North America from post-war Europe. Another source indicates that this term was first used in the United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientist and engineers. The converse phenomenon is "brain gain", which occurs when there is a large-scale immigration of technically qualified persons. There are also relevant phrases called "brain circulation" and "brain waste". Brain drain is common among developing nations, such as the former colonies of Africa, the island nations of the Caribbean, and particularly in centralized economies such as former East Germany and the Soviet Union. CAUSES OF BRAIN DRAIN

There are many factors obtaining in countries which are affected by the brain drain that have contributed to the exodus of skilled tal-ent; following is a survey of some of the salient factors, that is: poor conditions of service, human rights abuses, misplacement of trained personnel, disregard for local talent, scarcity of jobs, lim-ited access to education, poor healthcare services, a high level of crime, and the fear of losing valued relationships developed in hostcountries.

Brain drain can be caused by individual reasons such as ambition for an improved career, for better pay and living conditions or for exploration in developed nations. People move from their native countries due to factors such as lack of employment opportunities. Brain drain has negative effects on economies of developing nations.

Distinction of Reverse Brain Drain
The term ‘reverse brain drain’ is closely tied with brain drain and brain gain because reverse brain drain is a migratory phenomenon that results due to the brain drain of the intellectual elites from developing countries and is the mirror image of the benefit of an inflow of high quality human resources which is brain gain.[5] Reverse brain drain is sometimes related to the term ‘brain circulation’, which is when migrants return to their own country on a regular or occasional basis, sharing the benefits of the skills and resources they have acquired while living and working abroad.[6] An example of the benefits for the host countries, especially developing countries, are the payments of remittances. This provides a reason for governments to issue new legislation and tax rules that encourage outward migration and remittances.[7] However, "brain circulation" is known as the extended definition of brain gain with an emphasis on human capital circulation across nations in the global market, benefiting both the sending and receiving nations; in addition it is considered a two-way flow of skill, capital, and technology, unlike brain drain and reverse brain drain.[8] Another Form of Reverse Brain Drain

Recently there is a different type of reverse brain drain developing. This form of reverse brain drain differs from the way it is commonly viewed. It is explained by Salman Khurshid, the Minister of State for Corporate and Minority Affairs in India. He states that "Many second-generation Indians are coming back to the country.[9] Therefore, reverse brain drain is no longer limited to the commonly perceived migration from a developed to a developing country by a first generation individual. Many of the world’s top multinational companies are beginning to send their top Indian minds to head their companies in India and have the idea of reverse brain drain which is, "So when we lose some, we win many back,"[9] Example of Methods and Policies to Enhance Reverse Brain Drain The countries where reverse brain drain occurs are developing countries, or are countries who have suffered a significant impact from the ‘brain drain’ from developed countries. Governments have attempted to reverse the flow of brain drain through implementing new contracts, scholarships, government policies, and several other methods. Three methods of implementing and enhancing reverse brain drain are through governments retaining their students, encouraging students to pursue tertiary studies abroad and promoting them to return, and engaging with the diasporas which will encourage expatriates to remit savings, act as bridges for foreign investment and trade, and facilitate the transfer of skills and knowledge. AFRICA

In Africa, instead of the commonly termed ‘brain drain’, the term ‘reverse transfer of technology’ (RTT) is used to describe the migration of scientists from developing countries to overseas.[28] In order to prevent the loss of the experts, Africa has observed the "friends and relatives effect", which identifies professional, societal and personal factors as the three imperatives underlying the decision of African students in the United States to return home.[29] In addition, the most widespread instrument used by African countries to combat the brain drain is bonding, which obligates a graduate to return home for a required period of time before s/he can emigrate or to also have bilateral agreements with developed countries, which will require them to return home immediately upon graduation.[30] These approaches are influenced from the policies that exist and worked in Asian countries.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Short story essay

    ...Anjali Prabhat Mrs. Keating Honors English I 30 November 2012 Any skillful author has hundreds of tricks up his or her sleeve for successfully conveying the theme of the story to readers. One of the most effective methods in doing so would be through the use of irony, both situational and verbal. When an event occurs to the ...

    Read More
  • How is the story told in Jessie Cameron

    ...How is the story told in Jessie Cameron, by Cristina Rossetti? Told by a third person narrator, the poem begins in media res with dialogue from the persistent ‘neighbour’s son’, admirer of Jessie Cameron, repeating the titular character’s name with desire. This young lady who Rossetti creates as self-confident and stubborn is forme...

    Read More
  • The Story of the Aged Mother Japanese Folktales

    ...THE STORY OF THE AGED MOTHER A Japanese Folktale by MATSUO BASHOLong, long ago there lived at the foot of the mountain a poor farmer and his aged, widowedmother. They owned a bit of land which supplied them with food, and their humble werepeaceful and happy.Shining was governed by a despotic leader who though a warrior, had a great and cowardlys...

    Read More
  • An analysis of the story "The price of Eggs in China" by Don Lee.

    ...It is not until you carefully analyze the story "The Price of Eggs in China", that you are able to see that the author creates a very interesting connection. One of the definitions of a metaphor is a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity. In the st...

    Read More
  • Explanatory Story Assignment 6, we are looking for you to explain a subject. You must submit a 500-word explanatory story (plus or minus 50 words) about a topic of your own choosing. You are encouraged to use your story idea from Discussion Post 4 if that is viable. The story is due by 9 a.m. Wednesday, May 7, the last day of class. You must refer to a prim...

    Read More
  • Story: Family and Chris

    ...Essay “Horses of the night” by Margaret Laurence is a story about a boy named Chris that moves into his grandfather’s home to attend high school. The story is told through a narration by his younger cousin Vanessa. The poem “What Shall he Tell That Son” by Carl Sandburg is about a father telling a son about life and how he should dea...

    Read More
  • Short Story Cxc

    ...hort story Best Short Story for May/June 2010 English A Exam Written by: Zoie Hamilton of Washington Archilbald High School, St. Kitts and Nevis By Curtis Johnson in Form 4/5 Business 1 (Files) · Edit Doc Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate® May/June 2010 English A Examination   Quesion5:   It was the middle of the mathema...

    Read More
  • Stories Are for Adults To Learn English

    ...Stories Are for Adults Too! by Chris King Very often when I tell someone I am a storyteller, they will say, “Oh, how nice. Do you tell stories to children in the schools and at the libraries?” Well, yes, I do tell stories to children of all ages, but I also tell stories to adults. And, in my opinion, adults need and want the stories e...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.