According to AWAM (2009-2010) A study conducted by AWAM and Women’s Development Collective (WDC) on the year 2002 found that 35% of respondents in Malaysia had experienced one or more forms of sexual harassment. Studies show that survivors of sexual harassment are more likely to be in the lower rungs of the company i.e. in subordinate positions. The studies also show that survivors are mostly likely to not take any action due to fear of reprisal. There is currently no Malaysian law criminalizing sexual harassment, only a Code of Practice on the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace, launched in 1999 by the Ministry of Human Resources. Legal action can be taken under other provisions in the Penal Code, Employment Act 1955, and the Industrial Relations Act 1967. According to MalaysianDigest.com (2011) and Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia (2011) Some 300 sexual harassment cases at the workplace were referred to and investigated by the Manpower Department until June this after the Sexual Harassment Code of Practice on the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace was implemented in 1999. Human Resource Deputy Minister Datuk Maznah Mazlan said that based on the overall data, only about 30 sexual harassment cases were reported each year. According to Datuk Maznah, in the first six months of this year, 23 such cases were reported to the Human Resource Ministry and the number is expected to rise this year. Maznah said realizing that the code of practice on sexual harassment was not effective enough in addressing the issue, the ministry had tabled the Employment Bill (Amendment) 2011 to amend the Employment Act 1955 at the Dewan Rakyat sitting last month. To the question on the number of employers implementing the code, Maznah said so far only 1,671 employers were doing so. "Employers are encouraged to use the code as it will make it easier for the victims of sexual harassment to lodge reports," he said. – Bernama According to Factors Influencing Sexual Harasment in the Malaysian Workplace (2007) reports in Malaysian newspapers and magazines indicate that female Malaysian employees are frequently subjected to sexual harassment behaviors by their male colleagues. In view of the rising trend of women in the workforce in Malaysia, where almost half of them were economically active by the year 2000, considerable attention from management and policymakers on sexual harassment issues is vital. At the same time, more women are entering occupations traditionally regarded as male-oriented, such as engineering, medicine, management, etc. As such, workers are increasingly exposed to the likelihood of sexual harassment in their workplace. The frequency of occurrences of such incidences has been found to rangebetween 35% and 53% by available local studies (Ng, Zanariah, & Maria, 2003; Marican, 1999; Muzaffar, 1999).
Demographic profile of the respondents
A total of 657 questionnaires were completed. Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the sample. The breakdown shows that over half of the respondents are Chinese, and are rather youthful (aged between 20 and 29 years old). The distribution of the sample is fairly even in terms of the highest educational status attained – degree-holders and non-degree holders, the amount of income earned, as well as marital status – never been married and married.
Demographic profile of the respondents
Percentage Ethnicity Malay 37.1 Chinese 52.4 Indian/others 10.5 Age Below 20 years 4.0 20 to 29 years 52.6...
References: Awam.org.my 2002, AWAM : All Women 's Action Society Malaysia, viewed 12 June 2012, .
Bernama 2011, 300 Sexual Harassment Cases At Workplace Reported Since 1999, viewed 12 June 2012, .
Mohr.gov.my 2011, Sexual Harassment Cases On The Rise, viewed 12 June 2012, .
Ismaih, M. N, Lee, K. C, Chan, F. B 2007, Factors Influencing Sexual Harassment In The Malaysian Workplace, Faculty of Business and Accounting University Malaya, viewed 12 June 2012, .
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