Effects on Employees Health Due To Change in Work Hours
Society, as a whole, is at risk of health problems when abnormally long work hours are introduced in the work place. Therefore, there is a need to carry out more in-depth studies to determine the impact of longer hours and drastic scheduling changes on employees and to investigate their claims of being overworked. This research will look at the effect of long working hours on employees belonging to different industries, different types of organizations and employees in different situations. The study will also study the impact of gender, pay scale and age and examine whether it affects the impact. The sample size will be 15 and stratified random sampling will be used to collect the data. The analysis will be done using 95% confidence levels. This is a true experiment as it meets the conditions of one given that it is being conducted in a controlled environment with independent and dependent variables. Through this controlled environment, in which all aspects of the experiment are the same except for the working hours, the study exhibits internal validity. Conversely, the study also shows characteristics of external validity as the impact of longer working hours, and the effect of this on employees, can be generalized in additional industries and to the entire population. The responsibilities of human studies are shared between the researchers, the other people involved in the study and IRB (Institutional Review Board). Overall, we hope this study finds the understanding of the impact of longer working hours on employees’ health. Current Situation
It is management’s prerogative to change working hours and within the provisions of law. The working hour changes will not involve a change in conditions of service. With rising unemployment rates, people are lucky to have a job and studies indicate that “annual hours have risen 53% since 1975 and people are now working longer hours than ever before” (Tseng, 2011). Stress may result when an “employee feels that the working hours exceed his or her capacity and capability to cope. Long hours can affect the health and well-being of employees” (Better Health, 2012). Problem Statement
Longer working hours have been an increasing problem in companies worldwide. Recessionary economic conditions, downsizing of organizations, coupled with increasing consumer demands, has meant that employees need to work longer and harder. Longer working hours is not without its repercussions. “Long work hours have been associated with a broad range of health and safety risks” (Caruso, 2012). Society as a whole is at risk of health problems due to long working hours. Therefore there is a need to undertake studies to determine the impact of longer hours on employees. Studies also indicate that “long work hours affect productivity, increases fatigue, neglected social life, more stress, musculoskeletal damage, ergonomic hazards, heart attack, brain damage and obesity” (Schulte, Wagner, Ostry, Blanciforti, Cutlip, Krajnak, Miller, 2007, pp. 428-436). There is a need to analyze the effects on his or her sleep, stress, social life, emotions, health and other aspects of life that contribute to well-being. As well as determine whether demographic differences such as: gender, age, education exist in the effect of long working hours on employees. This would help mitigate some of the problems associated or to push for more rigorous laws that prevent such a hazardous situation at work. Research Question/Hypothesis
For the purpose of this study, the following question was addressed: How does the change to long working hours affect employees? As part of this study, one research hypothesis was included:
Employee productivity will remain consistent regardless of the type of shift they work. Literature Review
At one time or another we have all been asked to work overtime or adjust our schedules...
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