Reading fluency is defined as the ability to read smoothly and accurately, while using proper phrasing and expression (Bengeny,etal.,(2010). It is important that students add emphasis and make inferences while reading to process the meaning to the information being read. When practicing reading fluency it is important that students develop automacity. A professional ballet dancer no longer consciously has to think about her form or steps to a routine, a fluent reader should no longer remember to be aware of phonics or spelling rules while reading fluency. These skills will be embedded in the process of reading that it will just come natural to the student. In order for a student to read fluency without consciously thinking of the skill they must be taught systematically and explicitly, at the proper time and sequence. Word recognition, phonological awareness, decoding, and sight recognition are areas struggled readers need most help in (Bengeny,etal.,(2010). Without this knowledge the reader’s fluency slows down and it will affects their comprehension to the information being read. These are skills that need to be taught to become automatic. Researchers indicate that phonemic awareness and letter knowledge are very important in learning to decode (Bengeny,etal.,(2010). A student’s inability to identify the sounds in a word as well as blend them to form the words pronunciation may lead to multiple attempts to pronounce unknown words, decreasing the students speed and comprehension. Many students, from elementary school to high school struggle with reading fluency and comprehension. For years researches have studied and investigated elements of effective reading and why there are such a high number of struggled readers. Statistics have shown that 65 percent of eight graders in secondary school students with learning disabilities read below the 20th percentile and the numbers are even greater in urban school districts (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2007). Theorists argue that characteristics of proficient readers are to read reasonable and at an efficient rate (Spencer, S.A., Manis, F.R. (2010). It is common for students who are struggled readers to have trouble achieving fluency in word and passage reading. Fluency is identified as a critical component to successful reading. Two reading theorist Laberge and Samuels made a direct link between reading fluency and comprehension as cited by (Spencer, Manis. 2010). Student must develop automatist in order to properly comprehend the text they are reading. If the student has not mastered fluency in reading, they will have difficulties learning new reading skills. LaBerge and Samuels (2010) state that as a reader’s fluency increases the cognitive resources are opened and the reader’s comprehension will increase. Many researchers suggest that early readers should develop fluency at an age appropriate level. Students between first and third grade should read connected text identified as the approximate time when most readers should develop this skill. In 2002 National Assessment of Educational Progress founded a strong correlation between fluency and comprehension, and oral reading fluency and students overall reading abilities. There are effective ways that help improve a student’s reading fluency when implementing specific methods of instruction (O'Shea, L.J.,Sindelar,P. T. & O'Shea,D.J (1985).
There are several fluency- based strategies that a reported to improve the range of students reading abilities, when specific instructional component are combined. Therrien believed that the Repeated Reading strategy (RR) was the most effective strategy to help students who struggled in fluency and reading compression (as cited by Bengeny,etal., 2010). The RR strategy required the student to reread a short passage for a set number of times or until a certain criterion was met. This strategy was effective with both students who were struggle readers and students without...
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