A. Explain in three sentences only the educational implications of the following: 1. Thorndike’s laws of learning
a. Law of Readiness
First primary law of learning, according to Thorndike, is the ‘Law of Readiness’ or the ‘Law of Action Tendency’, which means that learning takes place when an action tendency is aroused through preparatory adjustment, set or attitude. Readiness means a preparation of action. If one is not prepared to learn, learning cannot be automatically instilled in him, for example, unless the typist, in order to learn typing prepares himself to start, he would not make much progress in a lethargic & unprepared manner. b. Law of Exercise
The second law of learning is the ‘Law of Exercise’, which means that drill or practice helps in increasing efficiency and durability of learning and according to Throndike’s S-R Bond Theory, the connections are strengthened with trail or practice and the connections are weakened when trial or practice is discontinued. The ‘law of exercise’, therefore, is also understood as the ‘law of use and disuse’ in which case connections or bonds made in the brain cortex are weakened or loosened. Learning to drive a motor-car, typewriting, singing or memorizing a poem or a mathematical table, and music etc. need exercise and repetition of various movements and actions many times. c. Law of Effects
The third law is the ‘Law of Effect’, according to which the trial or steps leading to satisfaction stamps in the bond or connection. Satisfying states lead to consolidation and strengthening of the connection, whereas dis-satisfaction, annoyance or pain lead to the weakening or stamping out of the connection. Teaching, therefore, must be pleasing. The educator must obey the tastes and interests of his pupils.
2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow examined the role that education played in the areas of teaching and learning. For Maslow, basic needs must be satisfied first in order for a child to be concerned with higher order needs, such as knowledge of the world or becoming self-actualized. Once basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate and the child can be motivated by the next need in the hierarchy. 3. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget’s theories have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education. First, the theories focused attention on the idea of developmentally appropriate education—an education with environments, curriculum, materials, and instruction that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs. In addition, several major approaches to curriculum and instruction are explicitly based on Piagetian theory, and this theory has been influential in constructivist models of learning 4. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function. In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e. come before) development. No single principle can account for development. Individual development cannot be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which it is embedded. 5. Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
One view of morality is based on Kohlberg’s framework of moral reasoning. According to Kholberg, “moral judgments may be defined as judgments of value, as social judgments, and as judgments that oblige an individual to take action.” One interpretation of the purpose of moral education is, moral education should guide the students to build up the correct outlook of the world, life and evaluation, consistently improve their socialistic consciousness so as to lay a solid foundation for them to become a rising generation having lofty ideas, moral integrity, knowledge and culture, and observing disciplines. 6. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s theory considers learning as habit formation and is based on the...
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